The Contribution of Space Technologies to Arctic Policy Priorities
The MARPOL Convention Baseline for Polar zones
The Arctic marine environment is especially vulnerable to impacts from marine activity. The most common threats: yy Release of substances through emissions to air or discharges to water yy Accidental releases of oil or hazardous cargo yy Disturbances of wildlife through sound and sight and collisions yy Disturbance of arctic marine environment through introduction of invasive alien species from shipping (risk may be enhanced due to changing climate) yy Migration corridors correspond broadly to the current main shipping routes and travel through geographic chokepoints yy The black carbon emitted from shipping in the arctic could have significant regional impacts by accelerating ice melt. The threats can be mitigated through careful planning and effective regulation in areas of high risk. The Convention includes regulations aimed at preventing and minimizing pollution from ships - both accidental pollution and that from routine operations - and currently includes six technical Annexes: Annex I - Oil
Annex II - Noxious Liquid Substances carried in Bulk Annex III - Harmful Substances carried in Packaged Form
Annex IV - Sewage Annex V - Garbage Annex VI - Air Pollution
The accidental release of oil or toxic chemicals can be considered one of the most serious threats to Arctic ecosystems as a result of shipping. Accidental oil spills are seen as the largest threat. This is connected to: - monitoring and response to accidental release of harmful substances or oil, and evacuation in case of emergencies, - monitoring navigation hazards: checking up on the general ice conditions, identifying ice conditions and monitoring ice-drift, its direction and speed, - higher importance of communications and broadband connections both for day to day use and in emergencies. As climate and sea ice conditions continue to change, animals’ activity will also be modified, making predictions of the potential interactions between shipping and animals increasingly complex.
Indigenous and Social Development
yy Meteorological services and warnings (collection examination, dissemination and exchange of meteorological data) yy Projecting change in sea ice - research on climate change, assessing the ice coverage yy Monitoring of accidental releases, oil spills yy Danger messages (obliging masters to communicate information on dangers to navigation (navigation hazards), including dangerous ice, and specifications) yy Communications and broadband connections in emergencies
B.2.11 Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) Facts in Brief Jurisdiction: 175 Parties. All eight of the Arctic states have ratified
Responsible Organizations: Respective Governments. CITES provides a framework to be respected by each Party, which has to adopt its own domestic legislation to ensure that CITES is implemented at the national level. Each Party to the Convention must designate one or more Management Authorities to be in charge of administering the licensing system and one or more
Scientific Authorities to advise them on the effects of trade on the status of the species. Status: The Convention was adopted on 3 March 1973, and entered in force on 1 July 1975.
Type: A legally-binding international convention, open to ratification. Coverage: Geographic areas belonging to the respective Parties Web link: http://www.cites.org/eng/disc/text.php
CITES is an international agreement between governments. Its aim is to ensure that international trade in specimens of wild animals and plants does not threaten their survival. Because trade in wild animals and plants crosses borders between countries, the effort to regulate it requires international cooperation. Today, the convention gives varying degrees of protection to more than 30,000 species of animals and plants, whether they are traded as live specimens or products.
73 B. INVENTORY OF ARCTIC POLICIES AND INDUSTRY INTERESTS
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