Caspian Sea 2011
State of the Environment of the Caspian Sea
a growth within the industrial 2 sector between 2000 and 2009 by more than 10% from an average of 39,9% to 51,3% . The next largest sector 3 , ser- vices, decreased slightly from 45% to 40% (mostly due to the crisis of 2008-09). At the same time, the agricultural 4 sector declined from 14,9% to 8,6% (WB 2010). With the oil and gas sector continuing to grow, and driven by the energy demand of the main cli- ents EU, China and India, transportation of petro- leum resources and associated extraction materi- als will increase significantly through the use of tanker fleets and pipelines. The export of crude oil (including lease condensate) in 2000-09 increased 1.6 times in Russia, 2.3 times in Kazakhstan and 6.8 times in Azerbaijan (US EIA Statistics), thus boosting the turnover of oil and gas through pipe- lines by 53 times. The Iranian tanker fleet has in- creased 1.6 times since 2001, reaching 2,449 ves- 2 Industry corresponds to the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC) divisions 10-45 and includes manufacturing (ISIC divisions 15-37). It comprises value added in mining, manu- facturing (also reported as a separate subgroup), construction, electricity, water, and gas. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for deprecia- tion of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The origin of value- added is determined by the ISIC, revision 3. Note: For VAB countries, gross value added at factor cost is used as the denominator. 3 Services correspond to ISIC divisions 50-99 and they include value added in wholesale and retail trade (including hotels and restaurants), transport, government, and financial, professional, and personal services such as education, health care, and real estate services. Also included are imputed bank service charges, import duties, and any statistical discrepancies noted by national compilers as well as discrepancies arising from rescaling. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or de- pletion and degradation of natural resources. The industrial ori- gin of value added is determined by the ISIC, revision 3. 4 Agriculture corresponds to ISIC divisions 1-5 and includes for- estry, hunting, and fishing, as well as cultivation of crops and livestock production. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural re- sources. The origin of value added is determined by the ISIC, revision 3. Note: For VAB countries, gross value added at factor cost is used as the denominator.
sels in 2007 (Statistical Centre of Iran 2008).
With the increased use of the Volga-Don Canal for transportation, there will be a growing de- mand for significant infrastructure improvements to support the port’s development. This will in- clude the need for labor, both primary and sec- ondary, materials, land-based transportation, and their ongoing operation. Shipping fleets are being updated, and as port capacities increase with in- creased traffic in the Volga-Don Canal, the over- all Caspian fleet is also expected to be improved (CEP 2007a). There is an increased interested to develop a Trans-Caspian pipeline that would bring Turkmenistan’s gas through pipeline system of Azerbaijan to the EU. However, there is no com- mon consent on this issue by all littoral states. The overall economic growth of the region, driv- en primarily by the energy sector, is coherent with the dynamics of foreign trade. This growth was hampered only by the financial crisis of 2008-09, and can be expected to follow the trend for the GDP and increase through the next 5 years. While the development of the oil and gas sector serves as the driving force of the regional econ- omy in the coming 5 years, the negative trade balance in prepared/preserved fish and caviar for all Caspian states in 2009 clearly indicates the depletion of fish stocks, primarily sturgeon (ITC 2010). Countries which were exporters in 2001 (except Russia, which was a stable importer throughout the decade), became net importers in 2009. The most radical shift occurred in Ka- zakhstan (+$3.1 million in 2001, -$21.1 million in 2009) and Iran (+$38.2 million in 2001 and -$1.5 million in 2009) (ITC 2010).
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