Women’s Empowerment at the Frontline of Adaptation


Foreword Acronyms

iv vi

Contributors and Reviewers

vii vii

Acknowledgements Executive Summary


Chapter 1: Mountain Women: Knowledge gaps and challenges for adaptation

1 3 4 4 7

Introduction Objectives

Analytical Scope

Methodology and Data Collection

Chapter 2: Women in Nepal: The gender context


Introduction to Nepal

11 12 13 14 15 17 19 19 19 20 21 21 23 25 25 26 26 27 29 31 34 38 40 43 45 46 47 48

Women, Development, and Poverty

Participation of Women in Labour and Community Forestry

Women: The Driving Force in Agriculture

Gender Based Violence

Chapter 3: Climate Change in Nepal

Vulnerability Temperature Precipitation

Impacts of Climate Change Quantity and Quality of Water Agriculture and Food Security

Chapter 4: Assessment of Nepal’s Climate Change Policy and Responses from a Gender Perspective

Nepal Climate Change Policy 2011 National Adaptation Plan of Action Local Adaptation Plan of Action REDD Readiness Preparedness Proposal

Inclusion of Women in National and Local Administrative Structures

Chapter 5: Impacts of Climate Change on Nepali Women: Key findings

Challenges to Water Availability

Challenges to Agriculture and Food Security Challenges to Forests and Biodiversity Challenges in Women’s Empowerment

Chapter 6: Existing Practices in Adaptation to Climate Change


Agriculture and Food Security Forest and Forest Products

Natural Disasters

Chapter 7: Gender-Inclusive Adaptation: The way forward



54 59


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