Vital Ozone Graphics 3

08 The international consensus on the need to preserve the ozone layer is reflected in the establishment of a Multilateral Fund (MLF) to support projects to eliminate ozone depleting substances. Between 1991 and 2011 the MLF received contributions of US$ 2,952 million from 50 developed countries. mobilization 3 pledging funds for patching the hole 26

implementing agencies: United Nation Environment Pro- gramme (UNEP), United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), United Nations Industrial Development Organiza- tion (UNIDO) and The World Bank. Up to 20 per cent of the contributions can be delivered through the Parties’ bilat- eral agencies in the form of eligible projects and activities. Funds are used for activities including the closure of ODS production plants and industrial conversion, technical as- sistance, information dissemination, training and capacity building of personnel aimed at phasing out the ODS used in a broad range of industrial sectors. The MLF Secretariat is based in Montreal, Canada.

Up to October 2012 expenditures of US$ 2,832 million have been approved to support over 6900 projects in 148 “Article 5” countries, out of the 196 Parties to the Protocol. National Ozone Units (NOUs) have been established in 143 countries as government focal points for implementation of this multi- lateral environmental agreement. As of end December 2011 projects approved by the Executive Committee have resulted in the phase-out of 257,195 ODP tonnes of consumption and 192,150 ODP tonnes of production.

Financial and technical assistance is provided in the form of grants or concessional loans and delivered through four

challenges ahead 1.


The last mile Although the Montreal Protocol has made consid- erable progress in the global drive to protect the ozone layer, there are still several issues that parties to the protocol need to address before we can be sure the ozone layer is safe for present and future generations. Momentum towards achieving a total phase-out must be sustained. All scientific analysis predicting the healing of the ozone layer is based on the assumption of full compliance with the agreed phase-out. Continued monitoring of the ozone layer needs to be ensured to observe the healing process. Precautionary principle and collateral damage Effective control mechanisms for new chemicals threatening the ozone layer are essential. This means considering other undesired environmental effects such as enhanced climate change caused by replacing ODS substances with high global warming potential. Current initiatives by several parties aim to control HFCs, a non-ODS, under the Montreal Pro- tocol. If agreed, this would enable a binding phase- out schedule to be defined.

Finding alternatives for some applications of some ODS, such as methyl bromide for high moisture dates. Controlling exemptions for “essential uses” and “critical uses” If not properly controlled, these exemptions may become a loophole for countries to avoid the phase-out of ODS, in so far as such exemptions may ultimately have an impact on the recovery of the hole. Active promotion of environmentally sustainable alternatives to HCFCs Effective guidance in selecting and adopting new technologies to industry in Article 5 countries is es- sential in order to limit greenhouse gas emissions from the sectors concerned. Illegal trade continues and needs to be dealt with to ensure that continued legal ODS uses are not di- verted to illegal uses.





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