The Ocean and Us
Web-based platforms, such as UNEP Live 20 , can operate alongside such initiatives to support progress towards SDGs by providing open access to substantiated, contextualised knowledge about the environment. For instance, global datasets outlining known distributions of important marine and coastal habitats, such as warm- and cold-water corals, mangroves, seagrasses, seamounts and knolls, have been collated and disseminated freely on the UNEP World Conservation Monitoring Centre (UNEP-WCMC) Ocean Data Viewer 21 , and could be used towards establishing the baseline knowledge required for SDGs 14.2 22 and 14.5 23 . Developing metrics and indicators suitable to national and global targets Drawing from available data, the Biodiversity Indicators Partnership (BIP; www.bipindicators.net) used the pressure- state-benefit-response framework to identify a series of indicators that measure progress against the Aichi Biodiversity Targets of the UN Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020 (BIP, 2010; Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity, 2010). As these biodiversity indicators measure the biodiversity components that also underpin sustainable development, they offer opportunities to establish complementary indicators for SDGs using a similar framework. For example, existing National Biodiversity Strategies and Action Plans (NBSAPs) can offer further guidance for developing SDG indicators and implementation plans (Bowles-Newark et al., 2014) as there is considerable alignment across indicators identified by the BIP (BIP, 2011) and the UN Sustainable Development Solutions Network (UN SDSN, 2014) .
Incorporation of marine and coastal ecosystem services is essential to reaching SDGs that demonstrate alignment of ecological and socioeconomic objectives. UNEP- WCMC, the UN SDSN and the BIP have produced guidance documentation to support the development of ecosystem service indicators of relevance to national and global targets, particularly SDGs (2010 BIP, 2010a; UN SDSN, 2014; UNEP- WCMC, 2011). Examples of ecosystem service indicators for marine and coastal environments include: the percentage of fish tonnage landed within the Maximum Sustainable Yield (SDGs 12 and 14); the percentage of reduced wave energy or coastal erosion through conserved or restored coastal habitats, thereby protecting coastal communities (SDGs 11, 13, and 14); and revenue obtained from marine and coastal recreational activities, such as diving (SDGs 8 and 14) (UN SDSN, 2014; UNEP, 2014; UNEP-WCMC, 2011). The development of integrated indicators measuring progress towards a number of targets would reduce the effort of monitoring and reporting.
20 http://uneplive.unep.org 21 http://data.unep-wcmc.org
22 14.2: By 2020, sustainably manage and protect marine and coastal ecosystems to avoid significant adverse impacts, including by strengthening their resilience, and take action for their restoration, to achieve healthy and productive oceans. 23 14.5: By 2020, conserve at least 10 per cent of coastal and marine areas, consistent with national and international law and based on best available scientific information.
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