The Ocean and Us

Sustainable Development Goals

An Example SDG 14.5: Conserve at least 10 % of marine and coastal areas by 2020 Targets: Sustainable Development Goal 14.5 requires that 10% of marine and coastal environment is protected by 2020, with areas selected based on the ’best available scientific information’. This selection process should consider both the ecological and socioeconomic outcomes associated with proposed management approaches within the area chosen, as well as their effectiveness. Examples of indicators Examples of indicators include: the extent and proportion (%) of marine and coastal protected areas (Thomas et al., 2014); the proportion (%) of overlap with areas of particular importance to marine biodiversity and habitats; and management effectiveness scores for assessed protected areas (2010 Biodiversity Indicators Partnership, 2010b, 2010c, 2010d, 2010e). Likewise, the distribution and relative importance of ecosystem services derived from designated or proposed protected areas could be used as indicators of the importance of these regions to different aspects of human well-being. Examples of available data From an ecological perspective, a broad selection of data are available from different sources, including: the World Database on Protected Areas (WDPA;; modelled and empirical data outlining the global distributions of marine and coastal habitats, including mangroves, warm- and cold-water corals, seamounts, and seagrasses (available from the Ocean Data Viewer;; Key Biodiversity Areas (KBAs), Important Bird Areas (IBAs), Ecologically or Biologically Significant Areas (EBSAs), Alliance for Zero Extinction sites (AZEs); and the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Examples of areas for data improvements An improved understanding of the features targeted by each protected area as well as the ecosystem services derived from these areas would be required to develop indicators of progress towards both ecological and socioeconomic targets under SDG 14.5. For instance, UNEP-WCMC, The Nature Conservancy (TNC), Cambridge University and partners are currentlymapping the distribution and relative value of mangrove and coral reef ecosystemservices globally, with an aim to quantify the degree to which these ecosystem services are captured within existingmarine and coastal protected areas. Likewise, projects related to ‘Areas Beyond National Jurisdiction’ (ABNJ) and ‘Biodiversity Beyond National Jurisdiction’ seek to expand our capacity to manage and protect Ecologically or Biologically Significant Areas (EBSAs).

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