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and according to source as surface runoff, storm interflow or groundwater runoff. 141

water withdrawal from surface and groundwater sources, water delivery to homes and businesses, consumptive use of water, water released from wastewater-treatment plants, water returned to the environment, and instream uses, such as using water to produce hydroelectric power. 146


Centre for International Climate and Environmental Research-Oslo Food and Agriculture Organization gross domestic product glacial lake outburst flood Himalayan Climate Change Adaptation Programme Hindu Kush Himalayan/Himalayas International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development Representative Concentration Pathway United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization


South Asia: The United Nations defined geographical region of nine countries in southern Asia. South Asia includes six of the eight HKH countries: Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Nepal and Pakistan. China is classified as East Asia and Myanmar as Southeast Asia. 142 Tributary: A small river or stream that flows into a large river or stream. Usually, a number of small tributaries merge to form a river. 143 Vulnerability: The characteristics and circumstances of a community, system or asset that make it susceptible to the damaging effects of a hazard. There are many aspects of vulnerability, arising from various physical, social, economic and environmental factors. Examples may include poor design and construction of buildings, inadequate protection of assets, lack of public information and awareness, limited official recognition of risks and preparedness measures, and disregard for wise environmental management. Vulnerability varies significantly within a community and over time. 144 Watershed: The land area that drains water into a particular stream, river or lake. It is a land feature that can be identified by tracing a line along the highest elevations between two areas on a map, often a ridge. Large watersheds contain thousands of smaller watersheds. 145 Water use: The use of water for a specific purpose, such as for domestic use, irrigation or industrial processing. Water use pertains to human interactions with, and influence over, the hydrologic cycle and includes elements such as

Withdrawal (of water): Water removed from a surface or groundwater source for use. 147




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