The Contribution of Space Technologies to Arctic Policy Priorities
Pleiades HR-1 and HR-2 System Capabilities
Pleiades is the optical component of the ORFEO system developed in cooperation with Italy. Pleiades offers stereoscopic coverage capability at high resolution with a single pass. A resolution of 0.7 m in vertical viewing is possible in panchromatic mode, with a resolution of 2.8 m in vertical viewing in multispectral mode (blue, green, red and near infrared). The system also offers the possibility to artificially increase the instantaneous field of view, depending on the de-pointing angle authorized by the user. The system currently enables to program two work plans per day, and three work plans per day to decrease the delays over the American continent is being investigated.
Panchromatic and multispectral images (simultaneously)
Pleiades satellites provide data to address several priority needs in the Arctic. The data can be used, for example, to support military and emergency response operations, for coastal erosion monitoring, and flood forecasting. These satellites can contribute data primarily for environmental monitoring, and security and sovereignty in the Arctic.
Relevance to Arctic Interests
Radarsat 1 and 2 Facts in Brief
Country: Canada Operations: RS-1: Canadian Space Agency; RS-2: MacDonald, Dettwiler and Associates Status: In operation, single satellites; RS-1 launched in 1995; RS-2 launched in 2007. Mission Duration: RS-1 was originally designed for a life of five years, and RS-2 for a life of seven years. Coverage: Global coverage Orbit: Sun-synchronous polar orbit of about 800-km altitude, with a repeat cycle of 24 days, providing complete coverage of the globe within six days and daily coverage north of 70° N. Key Service Areas: sea and river ice monitoring, ship detection, oil spill monitoring, and wind and surface-wave field estimation, disaster responses (e.g., earthquakes, tsunamis, floods, landslides, forest fires), hydrology, clear-cut mapping, and crop monitoring. Web link: http://www.asc-csa.gc.ca/eng/satellites/radarsat1/default.asp and http://www.asc-csa.gc.ca/eng/ satellites/radarsat2/default.asp Earth observation is a key priority of the Canadian Space Program, and RADARSAT-1 was developed as Canada›s flagship to pursue this priority. A key priority of the Canadian Space Program is responding to the twin challenges of monitoring the environment and managing natural resources. The hardy, versatile RADARSAT Earth Observation satellites are a major data source for commercial applications and remote sensing science. The RS-2 primary mission objective is the supply and distribution of data and products to meet the needs of present and future markets using a commercially viable approach. This is achieved by leveraging the knowledge and experience gained through the long and successful RADARSAT-1 mission while taking advantage of new technologies. Along with additional beam modes, RADARSAT-2 is designed with RADARSAT-1 compatible beam modes and follows the same orbit, repeat cycle, and ground track as RADARSAT-1. Other key features of RADARSAT-2 include the ability to select all beam modes in both left- and right-looking modes allowing more frequent revisits of targets, high downlink power resulting in a lower cost of entry for new ground stations, secure data and telemetry transfers, solid- state recorders, on-board GPS receiver for real-time position knowledge, and the use of a high-precision attitude control system. The system can operate in three beam modes: Selective Polarization (transmit H or V / receive H and/or V); Polarimetric (transmit H and V on alternate pulses / receive H and V on any pulse); and Selective Single Polarization (transmit H or V / receive H or V). Country: Italy Operations: Italian Space Agency Status: Four-satellite mission in operation; two satellites launched in 2007, one in 2008 and one in 2010. Mission Duration: Unknown Coverage: Global coverage Orbit: Sun-synchronous orbit of about 620 km altitude, providing coverage of equatorial regions every 11 days and polar regions every 3-4 days. Key Service Areas: Risk management, cartography, agriculture, forest, hydrology, geology, marine, and archaeology Web link: http://www.cosmo-skymed.it/en/index.htm As part of ORFEO, COSMO-SkyMed is a Space-based Earth Observation Dual Use System devoted to providing products/services for environmental monitoring and surveillance applications for the management of exogenous, endogenous and anthropogenic risks, and provision of commercial products and services. COSMO-SkyMed is the radar component of the ORFEO system developed in cooperation with France. The system consists of a constellation of four mid-sized satellites, each equipped with a multi-mode high-resolution Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) operating at X-band. COSMO-SkyMed has a dual nature (i.e., capable of satisfying civilian and defence customers), and is able to provide information and services to a number of activities and applications. The SAR operates in: Spotlight mode, for 1 m resolutions over small images; two Stripmap modes, for 3-15 m resolutions over tenth of km images (one mode is polarimetric with images acquired in two polarizations); and two ScanSAR modes, for medium to coarse (330-100 m) resolution over large swaths. Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images (C-band) The Radarsat program provides data to address priority needs in the Arctic. Designed for 24 hour all weather operation, Radarsat is ideally suited to monitoring of the region. Since they are particularly effective at monitoring ice, snow and soil moisture, these satellites can contribute vital data for environmental monitoring and economic development in the Arctic, including resource development, fisheries and northern shipping.
Relevance to Arctic Interests
COSMO-SkyMed Facts in Brief
91 C. INVENTORY OF SPACE SYSTEMS
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