The Contribution of Space Technologies to Arctic Policy Priorities
Meteor-M Series (1,2,3) Facts in Brief
Country: Russia Operations: Russian Federal Space Agency (ROSCOSMOS) Status: Meteor-M, No. 1 launched 2009, second and third Meteor-M satellites to be launched 2012 Mission Duration: Operational life span of 5 years Coverage: Global coverage Orbit: Non sun-synchronous orbit Key Service Areas: weather forecasting, along with monitoring of the ozone layer, radiation levels in space, observation of sea and ocean ice cover, climate change indicators Web link: http://www.russianspaceweb.com/meteor.html The main goal of the first two satellites in the series is to provide weather forecasting, along with monitoring of the ozone layer, radiation levels in space, and observations of sea and ocean ice cover. Meteor-M No. 3 will offer similar services and will also be equipped with a new-generation phased antenna radar for improved ocean monitoring. The capabilities of the Meteor-M series aim to restore the Russian weather constellation in orbit. The Meteor-M satellites comprise unique payloads including multi-zone satellite imaging systems, multichannel low-resolution scanning devices, radiolocation systems, atmosphere temperature and humidity sounding systems. The goal is for Meteor-M series, supported by other planned systems, (including different LEO, GEO and high-elliptical ones), to significantly improve Russia’s ability to contribute to global climate change studies. Meteor-M satellite series marks the re-institution of the Russia’s space weather-forecasting capabilities in the Arctic at a new technological level, in particular snow and ice coverage. The goal, according to ROSCOSMOS, is to build up the Russian meteorological network to include three satellites in the sun-synchronous orbit and three in the geostationary orbit. Prior to this mission, Russia had no functioning meteorological satellites in orbit to monitor Arctic conditions, and, according to the national press, had to purchase weather-forecasting data abroad. The Meteor-M series is also set to improve global climate change monitoring which can contribute to overall understanding of arctic climate change. Cloud coverage, ice and flood levels, monitoring of radiation levels, ecological and weather activities Operations: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and NASA Status: Five polar orbiting satellites are in operation. The newest, NOAA-19, was launched February 2009. NOAA- 15, 16, 17 and 18 all continue to transmit data as stand-by satellites. NOAA-19 is classified as the “operational” satellite. Mission Duration: Satellite design life of six years Coverage: Operating as a pair, satellites provide global cover with repeat data no more than six hours old. Orbit: Continuous circling of the Earth in an almost north-south orbit, passing close to both poles. The orbits are circular, with an altitude between 830 (morning orbit) and 870 (afternoon orbit) km, and are sun synchronous. Key Service Areas: Provision of complete global weather monitoring system; also supports SAR activities. Weblink: http://noaasis.noaa.gov/NOAASIS/ml/genlsatl.html The polar orbiting satellites’ main objective is to monitor the entire Earth providing day and night quantitative data on a local and global scale, tracking atmospheric variables and cloud images. The mission tracks weather conditions that eventually affect the weather and climate of the United States. Satellite information is also shared with various Federal agencies, such as the Departments of Agriculture, Interior, Defense, and Transportation; and with other countries, such as Japan, India, and Russia, and members of the European Space Agency (ESA) and the United Kingdom Meteorological Office; and with the private sector. A suite of instruments is able to measure parameters of the Earth’s atmosphere, its surface, cloud cover, incoming solar protons, positive ions, electron-flux sensitivity, and the energy spectrum at satellite altitude. As a part of the mission, the satellites can also receive process and retransmit data from Search and Rescue beacon transmitters, and provide automatic data collection platforms on land, ocean buoys or aboard free-floating balloons. The primary instrument aboard the satellite is the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR). Other sensors included ultraviolet spectral radiometer, microwave sounder units, and advanced data collection systems. Longer term weather forecasting including many parameters of the Earth’s atmosphere, its surface, temperature, cloud cover, incoming solar protons, positive ions, electron-flux density, the energy spectrum, as well as ice and snow conditions. The satellites provide visible and infrared radiometer data that are used for imaging purposes, radiation measurements, and temperature profiles which can support climate change monitoring. The polar orbiters’ ultraviolet sensors also provide ozone levels in the atmosphere and are able to detect the «ozone hole» over Arctic/ Antarctica during mid-September to mid-November.
Relevance to Arctic Interests
NOAA Polar Orbiting Satellites (TIROS-Next Generation) Facts in Brief Country: USA
Relevance to Arctic Interests
85 C. INVENTORY OF SPACE SYSTEMS
Made with FlippingBook - professional solution for displaying marketing and sales documents online