The Contribution of Space Technologies to Arctic Policy Priorities
Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals (CMS) Policy Implications Sovereignty N/A Safety N/A Environment
CMS Parties strive towards strictly protecting those animals which are threatened with extinction, conserving or restoring the places where they live, mitigating obstacles to migration and controlling other factors that might endanger them.
Indigenous and Social Development
Capability to: yy Take action to avoid any migratory species becoming endangered. yy Promote, co-operate in and support research relating to migratory species; yy Provide immediate protection for migratory species yy Monitor, track, identify and assess migratory species and their migration routes yy Monitor, identify and assess habitats of migratory species
Information on: yy Migratory species yy Migratory routes yy Habitats and ecosystems yy What’s harmful for migratory species
B.2.13 Convention on Wetlands of International Importance especially as Waterfowl Habitat (RAMSAR Convention) Convention on Wetlands of International Importance Especially as Waterfowl Habitat (Ramsar Convention) Facts in Brief Jurisdiction: 160 Contracting Parties. All of the Arctic States are Parties. Responsible Organizations: Governments and the International Union for Conservation of Nature that performs the continuing bureau duties.
Status: The text of the convention was adopted in 1971 and entered into force on 21 December 1975. Type: Multilateral treaty not affiliated with the United Nations system of Multilateral Environmental Agreements. Coverage: The Ramsar Convention deals with Wetlands of International Importance within the territory of each of the Contracting Parties. The Parties are responsible themselves for designating “Wetlands of International Importance”. These wetlands should be selected on account of their international significance in terms of ecology, botany, zoology, limnology or hydrology. In the first instance, wetlands of international importance to waterfowl at any season should be considered for designation. Web link: http://www.ramsar.org/cda/en/ramsar-documents-official-docs/main/ramsar/1-31%5E7761_4000_0__ The Convention on Wetlands -- called the «Ramsar Convention» -- is an intergovernmental treaty that embodies the commitments of its member countries to maintain/conserve the ecological character of their Wetlands of International Importance and to plan for the «wise use» of all of the wetlands in their territories. The wise use of wetlands is defined as “the maintenance of their ecological character, achieved through the implementation of ecosystem approaches, within the context of sustainable development”. “Wise use” therefore has at its heart the conservation and sustainable use of wetlands and their resources, for the benefit of humankind. The Convention uses a broad definition of the types of wetlands covered in its mission, including lakes and rivers, swamps and marshes, wet grasslands and peatlands, oases, estuaries, deltas and tidal flats, near-shore marine areas, mangroves and coral reefs, and human-made sites such as fish ponds, rice paddies, reservoirs, and salt pans.
The Ramsar Contracting Parties, or Member States, have committed themselves to implementing the “three pillars” of the Convention: to designate suitable wetlands for the List of Wetlands of International Importance (“Ramsar List”) and ensure their effective management; to work towards the ‘wise use’ of all their wetlands through national land-use planning, appropriate policies and legislation, management actions, and public education; and to cooperate internationally concerning transboundary wetlands, shared wetland systems, shared species, and development projects that may affect wetlands. Parties shall also endeavour through management to increase waterfowl populations on appropriate wetlands.
Indigenous and Social Development
In order to implement the Ramsar Convention there is a need for expertise in wetland research (including ecology, botany, zoology, limnology and hydrology), management and wardening. Expertise in the designation and management of nature reserves will also be required for the adequate implementation. Specifically there will be a need for capability to: yy Monitor, identify, assess and map the extent and characteristics of wetlands yy Monitor, identify and asses the population, distribution (also seasonal) of waterfowl yy Monitor, assess and police human activities within the boundaries of wetlands especially if protected
75 B. INVENTORY OF ARCTIC POLICIES AND INDUSTRY INTERESTS
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