The Contribution of Space Technologies to Arctic Policy Priorities
Convention on Biological Diversity Policy Objectives
The Convention on Biological Diversity is an international treaty to sustain the rich diversity of life on Earth. The overarching objective is to develop national strategies for the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity. It is often seen as the primary treaty for sustainable development. It has three main goals: yy The conservation of biological diversity yy The sustainable use of the components of biological diversity yy The fair and equitable sharing of the benefits arising out of the utilization of genetic resources, including by appropriate yy Access to genetic resources yy Transfer of relevant technologies, yy Funding.
States are obliged to prevent activities within their jurisdiction or control from damaging the environment in other parts of the world. Hence it is a challenge to have enough information and knowledge about human activities and biological processes to manage the biological diversity well. It is also a challenge to reach consensus on a liability regime covering cases of transboundary damage to biodiversity. The convention is aimed at the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity. The Convention is the first agreement to address all aspects of biological diversity: species, ecosystems and genetic resources. All States have sovereignty over their own genetic resources and are entitled to the “fair and equitable sharing of the benefits” that these resources provide. Value of biodiversity should be quantified and internalized into market prices, and perverse government-financed incentives that accelerate the loss of biodiversity need to be addressed. Ecotourism is a very fast growing industry and needs to be wisely managed (ecotourism) so it has the potential to reconcile economic and environmental concerns and give a practical meaning to sustainable development. Biodiversity is just part of a broader discussion within the international community on the need to ensure harmony between trade rules and environmental law. Overall challenge is to maximize the benefit and minimize the adverse impacts of economic activities The Convention recognizes that many indigenous and local communities interact closely with biological diversity. They contribute to the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity through their role as natural resource managers. Traditional knowledge should be respected and maintained and benefits arisen from their utilization should be equitable shared. N/A
Indigenous and Social Development
yy Identify and monitor components of biological diversity important for its conservation and sustainable use yy Identify and monitor the effects of processes and activities which have adverse impact on conservation and biological diversity yy Conserve ecosystems and natural habitats and protect and restore populations of species in and outside their natural habitats (e.g., by establishing protected areas) yy Adopt measures for sustainable use of biological resources yy Adopt economically and socially sound measures that act as incentives for the conservation and sustainable use of components of biological diversity. yy Conduct research and training on the identification, conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity yy Promote public education to raise awareness about the importance of biodiversity yy Exchange of information relevant to the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity yy Conduct impact assessments of proposed projects that are likely to have significant adverse effects on biodiversity yy Regulate access to genetic resources and fair and equitable sharing of the benefits of their utilization yy Promote the transfer of technology among parties to the Convention to promote the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity yy Cooperate on technical and scientific issues for meeting the objectives of the Convention yy Regulate the handling of biotechnology to ensure the safe transfer, handling and use of genetically modified organisms yy Monitor and report on the effectiveness of measures taken to implement the Convention yy Facilitate the exchange of information yy Information on: yy Habitat, ecosystem and species distribution yy Routes of migratory species yy Productivity yy Sea-surface temperature yy surface chlorophyll concentration yy Human-activities and infrastructure (e.g., Land-use, shipping) and its effects (e.g. pollution, oil spill)
CONTRIBUTION OF SPACE TECHNOLOGIES TO ARCTIC POLICY PRIORITIES 70
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