The Contribution of Space Technologies to Arctic Policy Priorities
Convention on the Protection of the Marine Environment of the Baltic Sea Area Policy Implications Sovereignty N/A Safety
In relation to the prevention of pollution from ships the policy aims at improved hydrographic services and promotion of the use of Electronic Navigational Charts and Automatic Identification Systems with positive implications on maritime safety. The policy is also aimed at reducing harmful substances that are toxic or have other noxious properties affecting living organisms including humans. The policy is directly aimed at the prevention and elimination of pollution in order to promote the ecological restoration of the Baltic Sea Area and the preservation of its ecological balance. The ecological balance is a key property of the environment of the Baltic Sea Area. The policy is focussed on the reduction of the impact on the environment of: yy Harmful substances; yy Pollution from land-based sources; yy Pollution from ships; yy Pollution, noise, hydrodynamic effects and waste from pleasure crafts;
yy Incineration at sea; yy Dumping from ships yy Exploration and exploitation of the seabed and its subsoil yy The policy also promotes:
yy The exchange of information on pollution incidents; yy Co-operation in combating marine pollution; and yy The conservation of natural habitats and biological diversity and the protection of ecological processes ensuring the sustainable use of the natural resources. The sustainable use of marine natural resources is promoted by the policy which may obviously have implications in the economic development of the States surrounding the Baltic Sea.
Indigenous and Social Development
Capability to: yy Monitor pollution (harmful substances, land-based, ship originated, incineration, dumping) and pollution incidents yy Monitor traffic in the Baltic Sea. yy Monitor exploration and exploitation of the seabed and its subsoil yy Report periodically on the measures taken for the implementation of the convention, the effectiveness of such measures and problems encountered in the implementation of the convention. yy Monitor the overall state of the marine environment Information on: yy Distribution of harmful substances (including oil slicks and marine debris). yy Distribution of pollution (source, qualitative, quantitative) leading to adverse effects in the marine environment including eutrophication (monitoring of chlorophyll concentration in surface waters). yy Ship position and navigation routes and reliable statistics on ships’ traffic marine traffic and transport. yy Distribution of marine operations including mineral exploration and exploitation. yy Information on the distribution of biodiversity including marine and coastal habitats and ecosystems. yy Information on water properties yy Physical properties: Sea surface temperature, salinity, turbidity yy Chemical properties: pH, dissolved oxygen, nutrients yy Biological properties: surface chlorophyll concentration for primary productivity estimates, dissolved organic matter, suspended particulate organic matter.
B.2.3 Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants Facts in Brief
Jurisdiction: 176 Parties. Of the Arctic States, Canada, Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Finland, Russian Federation, and Iceland have ratified the Convention, but USA, though a signatory, has not ratified it yet. Responsible Organizations: Respective governments of the Parties Status: The text of the convention was adopted 22 May 2001 and entered into force on 17 May 2004. Type: A legally-binding international convention, open to ratification. The convention is administered by UNEP. Coverage: Geographic area belonging to the respective Parties. Web link: http://chm.pops.int/Convention/ConventionText/tabid/2232/Default.aspx The overall objective of the Stockholm Convention is to protect human health and the environment from persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Parties need to take measures to reduce or eliminate the release of POPs into the environment by prohibiting, phasing out as soon as possible, or restricting the unintentional and intentional production, placing on the market, and use of substances subject to the Convention, as well as reducing or eliminating their release from stockpiles and wastes.
CONTRIBUTION OF SPACE TECHNOLOGIES TO ARCTIC POLICY PRIORITIES 64
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