The Contribution of Space Technologies to Arctic Policy Priorities
The European Union Strategy for the Arctic Region Information Requirements Information on:
yy near-real time sea-ice information to ships in all Arctic waters yy socio-economic impact assessment of resource development yy near-real-time satellite imagery and navigation data streams yy vessel traffic and monitoring (particularly north of 85°N) yy in-situ environmental observations (sea ice, icebergs, snow, glaciers, ice sheets and permafrost), in particular to support GMES, including biodiversity monitoring and support to international initiatives such as SAON. yy rate of climate change; continuous observations ensuring long term data records to support climate monitoring yy data communications across a broad spectrum of needs (oil and gas surveying and exploration, maritime activities, arctic shipping, search and rescue, air traffic management, environmental management, tourism, surveillance, security and safety as well as applications for navigation and positioning, and scientific purposes.) yy navigation hazards yy information about potential environmental hazards (particularly early warning and decision support facilities). yy support fully open and “obstacle” free data access policy and infrastructure.
B.2 International Policies B.2.2 Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environment of the North-East Atlantic Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environment of the North-East Atlantic (OSPAR) Facts in Brief
Jurisdiction: The Contracting Parties to the OSPAR Convention are Coastal States of the North-East Atlantic: Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Iceland, Ireland, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland plus the European Commission and Luxembourg and Switzerland (as part of the Northeast Atlantic watershed). Responsible Organizations: Respective Governments and the European Commission/ The OSPAR Commission is the governing body, working through intergovernmental co-operation. Status: The text of the convention was adopted in 1992 and entered into force on 25 March 1998. Type: Legally-binding multilateral treaty Coverage: The Convention applies to the internal waters and the territorial seas of the Contracting Parties, the sea beyond and adjacent to the territorial sea under the jurisdiction of the coastal state including the bed of all those waters and its sub-soil situated within the Atlantic and Arctic Oceans and their dependent seas which lie north of 36° north latitude and between 42° west longitude and 51° east longitude excluding the Baltic Sea and the Belts and the Mediterranean Sea.
Web link: http://www.ospar.org/content/content.asp?menu=01481200000000_000000_000000 (Home); http://www.ospar.org/ html_documents/ospar/html/OSPAR_Convention_e_updated_text_2007.pdf (PDF) Contracting Parties shall take all possible steps to prevent and eliminate pollution and shall take the necessary measures to protect the maritime area against the adverse effects of human activities so as to safeguard human health and to conserve marine ecosystems and, when practicable, restore marine areas which have been adversely affected. General obligation of signatories is to follow: yy The precautionary principle; yy The polluter pays principle; yy Best available techniques (BAT) and best environmental practice (BEP), including clean technology. A mechanism for cooperation to protect the marine environment of the North-East Atlantic, guided by the ecosystem approach to an integrated management of human activities in the marine environment.
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