The Contribution of Space Technologies to Arctic Policy Priorities
China and the Arctic Policy Implications
No territorial claims in the Arctic, but have shown support for the legal process of Arctic states extending their continental shelf through UNCLOS. Making sure the Northwest Passage and the Northern Sea Route remain open for international navigation. Increased international collaboration, most pronounced with Norway, Denmark, and Russia. Pursuing Arctic Council Observer status. Investment in international scientific collaboration. Arctic research in oceanography, biology, atmospheric science, and glaciology. Member of the International Arctic Science Committee (IASC). Investment in mining projects in Greenland (rare earth metals) and Northern Canada (iron). Negotiating bilateral agreements with Russia on Siberian pipeline projects. China must partner with foreign companies on offshore projects; it lacks the technological expertise to develop this independently. N/A
Indigenous and Social Development
yy Effective funding for scientific research in the fields of oceanography, biology, atmospheric science, and glaciology.
yy Developing technological expertise for offshore oil and gas production yy Ice conditions yy Navigation hazards
B.1.11 India India and the Arctic Facts in Brief
Background: Similar to China, India has not released a formal Arctic strategy. Instead, its primary activity in the Arctic has been largely limited to research. However, their interest in the Arctic can be identified as being three-fold: environmental protection, economy and policy. The need to fuel India’s emerging economy with hydro-carbons has prompted the government to look northward. Areas of interest: Research, hydro-carbons Status: India is discussing whether to release a strategy, as well as whether to join the Arctic Council. Indian scientific missions date back to 1981. Research is largely related to global warming, impacts of sea-level rise, and the potential climatic effects of Arctic change on India’s monsoons. Prior to 2008, India led three to four research projects annually. In 2008, a permanent research station was built in Ny-Alesund on Svalbard. India is expected to get a research vessel in 2012. It is clear that economic interests will also drive India’s interests in the Arctic; however outside of specific projects in Siberia, it is not clear the extent to which they will pursue Arctic development.
Proposed the declaration of the Arctic as a region free from nuclear weapons.
Investment in international scientific collaboration. Arctic research in Arctic/global climate change.
Bilateral relationship with Russia in Salekhard for hydrocarbon resources. An agreement in 2011 with India’s largest oil company.
Indigenous and Social Development
B.1.11 Germany Germany’s Interests in Arctic Region Facts in Brief Jurisdiction: Germany
Responsible Organizations: Foreign Office, Ministry of Defence, Ministry of Environment Status: No cohesive Arctic strategy is currently in place; as a non-Arctic country Germany exerts influence via international networks (e.g. NATO, EU). Germany is a permanent observer on the Arctic Council Type: Uncoordinated approach to Arctic policy shared by multiple departments Coverage: Arctic Web link: http://www1.carleton.ca/ces/ccms/wp-content/ccms-files/Kaim.pdf http://geopoliticsnorth.org/images/stories/attachments/Steinicke%20Major_2011.pdf http://www.cducsu.de/Titel__rede_eine_deutsche_position_hinichtlich_der_eu_arktis_politik_erforderlich/TabID__1/ SubTabID__2/InhaltTypID__2/InhaltID__19738/Inhalte.aspx Germany’s interests in the Arctic include open and secure maritime transportation (includiing search and rescue), access to critical hydrocarbon resources, and environmental protection. In addition, Germany has a long-standing, leading role in Arctic science and supports the settlement of territorial disputes.
CONTRIBUTION OF SPACE TECHNOLOGIES TO ARCTIC POLICY PRIORITIES 58
Made with FlippingBook - professional solution for displaying marketing and sales documents online