The Contribution of Space Technologies to Arctic Policy Priorities
Canadian Arctic Foreign Policy (August 2010) Policy Implications Sovereignty
Resolution of boundary issues in the Arctic region, in accordance with international law. Secure international recognition for the full extent of our extended continental shelf wherein Canada can exercise its sovereign rights over the resources of the seabed and subsoil.
Ensure public safety across Canada’s north Promote safe shipping and offshore operations Address human health issues in northern communities.
Promote an ecosystem-based management approach with its Arctic neighbours and others. Actively contribute to and support international efforts to address climate change in the Arctic, including both mitigation and adaptation. Canada will enhance its efforts, including pursuing and strengthening international standards, related to biodiversity, genetic resources, and persistent organic pollutants. Contribute to strengthening Arctic science and the legacy of International Polar Year. Create the appropriate international conditions for sustainable development in the Arctic, complementing domestic measures to support economic development. Understanding the opportunities and challenges of Arctic energy and resource development and developing regulations, guidelines and standards that are informed by Arctic science and research, including traditional knowledge, with special emphasis on oil and gas development. Seek and promote trade and investment opportunities that benefit Northerners and all Canadians. Improve sea and air transportation routes Encourage a greater understanding of the human dimension of the Arctic to improve the lives of Northerners, particularly through the Arctic Council. Engage with Northerners on Canada’s Arctic foreign policy Continue to support Indigenous Permanent Participant organizations in Canada, including financially, to contribute to strengthening their capacity to fully participate in the activities of the Arctic Council. Provide Canadian youth with opportunities to participate in the circumpolar dialogue.
Indigenous and Social Development
yy Effective representation in relevant international, inter-governmental forums yy Effective participation relevant international programs and initiatives yy Comprehensive ability to monitor air and vessel traffic, in air, on land/ice and off-shore yy Effective communications yy Effective navigation ability in air, on land/ice and off-shore yy Effective resource mapping and inventory
yy Enforce applicable legislation yy Effective support for science
yy Comprehensive information on weather and ice conditions yy Detection and monitoring of pollution events yy Real-time satellite imagery yy Satellite/fiber-optic-based communications technologies yy In-situ environmental observations yy Up-to-date infrastructure to support movement of goods and services
B.1.7 United States US Arctic Region Policy- NSPD-66/ HSPD-25 (January 2009) Facts in Brief
Jurisdiction: The Policy was signed by President Bush, in one of his final acts in office. Despite being developed by a different administration, the policy is considered to be non-partisan and remains the primary policy related to the Arctic for the Obama Administration. The Obama Administration has struck an Arctic Policy Group that oversees policy development related to the Arctic. Responsible Organizations: The Policy is a statement from the executive, and thus includes overall implementation objectives for relevant state departments. Responsibilities for the implementation of the document reference: the Secretaries of State; Departments of Defense, Transportation, Commerce, the Interior, Energy, and Homeland Security; and the Environmental Protection Agency. The document also urges that the Senate consider immediately signing and ratifying the U.N Convention on the Law of the Sea. Status: Since its release in 2009, the policy remains the overarching state directive related to the Arctic. Subsequent internal strategies that take into consideration the objectives of the policy have been developed by Executive Office, Departments of Defense, State, Commerce, Energy, Interior, Homeland Security, Agriculture, Health and Human Services, and Environmental Protection Agency. There are no current plans to update or replace the policy, and internal strategies are continuing to evolve based on the policy’s framework. Type: The US Arctic Region Policy is a strategic document that seeks to re-position the US as an Arctic power. Although it does not contain individual pieces of legislation, it recommends the implementation of a number of measures identified to improve the US ambitions in the region and clarify and update its stance on a number of broad issues. The policy is consistent with the laws and Constitution of the U.S., and affirms that the Law of the Sea is deemed to be international customary law, despite it not being party to the agreement. Coverage: The policy does not define the Arctic region by a stated geographic boundary. The policy includes priorities and recommendations that have national, regional, and international implications. Nationally, these include measures related to security, research, continental shelf, environmental protection, and energy. Regionally, there are provisions that seek to improve regional governance and shared environmental stewardship. Internationally, maintaining the freedom of the seas is solidified as an overarching priority. Web link: http://www.fas.org/irp/offdocs/nspd/nspd-66.htm
55 B. INVENTORY OF ARCTIC POLICIES AND INDUSTRY INTERESTS
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