The Contribution of Space Technologies to Arctic Policy Priorities
Meld. St. 7 (2011-2012) Nordområdene - Visjon og virkemidler (The High North – vision and means) Policy Implications Sovereignty
All the borders in the North are now resolved, except some continental shelf claims. The Barents Sea will continue to have an important military strategic position, especially for Russia, but also for the USA concerning their nuclear weapons policy. There will be increased navigation and drilling In the Barents Sea. This will create challenges connected to monitoring, oil spill response and evacuation and will necessitate monitoring ice as an important navigational hazard. Communications and broadband connections in the high north will become important, both for day to day use and in emergencies. The paper has a focus on climate change, but also on endangered species (connected to climate change), pollution and the transport of pollution from other parts of the world into the Arctic. Oil spill prevention and clean-up will become more important as navigation and drilling increases. SAON (http://www.arcticobserving.org) is mentioned as important. The main challenges are to have enough information and knowledge about human, biological, and geological activities to be able to manage the oceans well. The government will procure a new research vessel with icebreaking capabilities. Cooperation with Russia on monitoring and increasing safety concerning nuclear reactors and nuclear waste is important. The increase in off shore oil and gas drilling and production will probably be the biggest driver of economic change in the region. In addition, mining could be significant, while fisheries will continue to be an important part of the economy in northern Norway. The government wishes to develop a more knowledge intensive industry in the area. Marine bio-prospecting is an important part of this. Safeguarding the language and culture of indigenous peoples is important. Development, internationalization, new industries and resource exploitation create both challenges and opportunities. Indigenous peoples must be able to participate in the planning processes. Areas for traditional use of fisheries and reindeer herding must be safeguarded.
Indigenous and Social Development
The capability to: yy monitor traffic in the Barents Sea yy detect oil spills, on ocean and on ice yy monitor ice drift, ice thickness and ice rim yy communication at sea yy monitor vegetation in reindeer areas yy monitor snow, snow amount and snow intensity yy ascertain the level of fish stocks and other biological activity yy monitor long range transport of pollution yy monitor nuclear incidents
yy ice and snow yy rate of climate change yy navigation hazards yy ships in the area yy potential environmental hazards.
B.1.6 Canada Canadian Northern Strategy (August 2009) Facts in Brief
Jurisdiction: The Canadian Northern Strategy was published under the authority of the Minister of Indian Affairs and Northern Development and Federal Interlocutor for Métis and Non-Status Indians Responsible Organizations: Spearheaded by Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development Canada, the implementation of the strategy involves the participation of the Departments of National Defence, Fisheries and Oceans, Environment, Natural Resources and Foreign Affairs and International Trade. Policy implementation also involves territorial and land claims governments. Status: Canada’s Northern Strategy came into effect in August 2009. In has since been confirmed in Canada’s Arctic Foreign Policy Statement in August 2012. Implementation is ongoing through legal instruments (e.g. Arctic Waters Pollution Prevention Act, Canada Shipping Act, land claims) as well as international programs (e.g. IPY, UNCLOS). Type: The Canadian Northern Strategy is strategic in emphasis. Accordingly, existing laws and legal frameworks are applied, and programs are supported that further the strategy’s objectives. Within the stated priorities, focus is placed primarily on economic impacts and benefits. Coverage: The Canadian Northern Strategy covers northern Canadian territory (including the Yukon and Northwest Territories, Nunavut, as well as Labrador, Northern Quebec, Northern Ontario and Northern Manitoba) and extending to the North Pole. It recognizes 76 northern communities and municipalities distributed throughout the area of interest. Web link: http://www.northernstrategy.gc.ca/index-eng.asp The principal objectives of Canada’s Northern strategy include exercising Canada’s Arctic sovereignty, promoting social and economic development, protecting the North’s environmental heritage and improving and devolving northern governance to increase the participation on northern residents.
53 B. INVENTORY OF ARCTIC POLICIES AND INDUSTRY INTERESTS
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