The Contribution of Space Technologies to Arctic Policy Priorities
shipping). Throughout these policies and national strategies there is consist focus on the sustainable use of natural resources in what is clearly recognized as a fragile environment. The Danish Greenlandic strategy speaks of “protection and sustainable use of natural resources” and the US Policy of “environmentally sustainable development”. Further, the EU Communication from the Commission to the European parliament and the Council – the EU and the Arctic Region speaks of “promoting sustainable use of resources with exploitation of Arctic offshore hydrocarbons provided in full respect of strict environmental standards taking into account the particular vulnerability of the Arctic” and suggests that Arctic fisheries should take place “at sustainable levels whilst respecting the rights of local coastal communities”. As well, the Northern Dimension of the European Union , adopted in November 2006, has been developed to deliver a common policy for Northern Europe (Heininen, August 2011). yy Canada’s “Our North, Our Heritage, Our Future” : Released in 2009, the strategy’s second priority is the promotion of social and economic development with a vision to create the sustainable use of Arctic potential. Development includes the exploration and utilization of natural resources (e.g., Geo- Mapping for Energy and Minerals) and mega-projects such as the Mackenzie Gas Project. An interesting point in the strategy is the implementation of a free trade agreement with EFTA member countries, as an avenue to enhance trading relations with other Arctic states (Heininen, August 2011). yy Norway’s High North Initiative : Launched in 2006, the Initiative puts the Arctic and the High North at the centre of Norwegian economic development. The Initiative has three principal pillars: resource extraction (oil and gas, fisheries; and new types of marine and biological resources); knowledge accretion; and Norway’s relationship with Russia. Norway’s achievements in the Arctic are marked, and include extension of the Arctic shelf, the recent border deal with Russia and more globally, a burgeoning oil and gas industry (Heininen, August 2011). yy Russia’s Arctic Policy to 2020 focuses on several key areas including expanding hydro-carbon production in the Arctic Sea; assessing resource potential across vast territory by improved geological-geophysical, hydrographic and cartographical mapping; and expansion of conventional (oil and gas) and non-conventional (renewable) energy resources. yy Denmark, Greenland and the Faroe Islands: Strategy for the Arctic 2011-2020: The recently released Strategy emphasises self-sustaining growth and development as one of its key objectives, with a focus on fishing, mining and a large expansion of oil and gas in both Faroe and Greenland waters. There isalsoexpectedgrowth in renewableenergy, particularly hydro-electric. Tourism and cruise liners will create both challenges and opportunities. (GRID-Arendal, 2012). yy Finland’s Strategy for the Arctic Region: Released in 2010, the Strategy is organized around four themes, with the second being “Economic activities and know-how”. Finland’s objectives are first to strengthen its role as an international Some specific policies/strategies of interest include:
expert on arctic issues; second, to make better use of Finnish technology-based expertise of winter shipping and transport and ship-building; and third, to expand opportunities for Finnish companies to benefit from their arctic expertise and know-how in the large mega-projects of the Barents Regions (Heininen, August 2011). yy Iceland in the High North: Released in 2009, this document indicates that a key priority is the environment and resources, emphasising both sustainable development and Iceland’s interests; particularly those of Iceland’s fishing industry. Resource development in the Arctic should not undermine sustainable development in the region. It must serve the interests of its inhabitants and communities contributing to long-term economic development. Key areas of development include access to previously inaccessible resources on the ocean floor and new fishing grounds that are emerging following the retreating ice. yy Sweden’s Strategy for the Arctic region: Released in 2011, the Strategy lists economic development as one of its key priorities. Several business areas are highlighted including: (i) mining petroleum (oil and gas resources) and forestry; (ii) land transport and infrastructure; (iii) maritime security and shipping; (iv) sea and air rescue; (v) icebreaking; (vi) energy; (vii) tourism; (viii) reindeer herding; and (ix) ICT and space technology (Heininen, August 2011). yy USA’s National Security Presidential Directive/NSPD-66 concerning Arctic Region Policy : Released in 2009, with the growing awareness that the Arctic is both fragile and rich in resources, the policy sets forth several priorities, with one being economic issues including energy. In subsequent sections of the document, six themes are highlighted, with one focused on ensuring that natural resource management and economic development in the region are environmentally sustainable (Heininen, August 2011). yy China has yet to release an official Arctic policy at the state level. Instead, its position on Arctic affairs has been limited to individual references from the state on specific issues, most notably on its growing commercial interest in resource development, more specifically investment inmining projects in Greenland (rare earth metals) and Northern Canada (iron). China is also in negotiations with Russia in regards to bilateral agreements for Siberian pipeline projects. yy India has not released a formal Arctic strategy. However, their interest in the Arctic can be identified as being three- fold- environmental protection, economy, and policy. The need to fuel India’s emerging economy with hydro-carbons has prompted the government to look northward for resource development yy Germany does not have a cohesive Arctic strategy currently in place. Access to natural resources and safe and secure maritime trade routes constitute major Arctic objectives for Germany. Accordingly, Germany is working actively through international collaborative channels (EU, NATO, Arctic Council, etc.) to achieve these objectives.
CONTRIBUTION OF SPACE TECHNOLOGIES TO ARCTIC POLICY PRIORITIES 32
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