The Contribution of Space Technologies to Arctic Policy Priorities

yy Trans-Arctic transport or navigation, voyages which are taken across the Arctic Ocean from Pacific to Atlantic oceans or vice versa

development in the Arctic and increased shipping traffic in the North-Atlantic, should also be explored (Heininen, 2011).

yy Finland’s Strategy for the Arctic Region notes that the increase in sea transportation is the biggest threat to Arctic marine ecosystems, and safety systems are inadequate yy Russia’s Fundamentals of State Policy of the Russian Federation in the Arctic in the Period up to 2020 and Beyond policy document includes the policy objective of expanding their polar fleet to facilitate and monitor increased shipping, and constructing maritime check-points to improve navigation monitoring. yy The US National Security Presidential Directive/NSPD – 66 concerning an Arctic Region Policy includes the aim to facilitate safe, secure and reliable navigation, including developing safe navigation standards, and to protect maritime commerce and the environment, including the establishment of a risk-based capacity for addressing hazards in the Arctic. yy As a major exporting economy, maritime trade routes are of critical importance to Germany. Accordingly, the safety of marine transportation in Arctic waters is a major objective of German Arctic policy. yy As a result of articulated environmental, economic and security interests, the safety of transportation and operations is implicit in Frances’s perspectives on the Arctic. yy The EU policy on the Arctic, Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament and the Council – The European Union and the Arctic Region , includes a policy objective of promoting stricter safety and environmental standards, and defending the principle of freedom of navigation throughout the Arctic (Heininen, 2011). The policies promote the full implementation of existing obligations concerning navigation rules, maritime safety, routes system and environmental standards in the Arctic, in particular those under the International Maritime Organization. Support is being provided to increase the safety of cruise ships and restrict their access to highly vulnerable areas. yy The Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environment of the North-East Atlantic (OSPAR) impacts maritime safety through the regulation of the dumping of waste. yy The Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environment of the Baltic Sea Area aims at improved hydrographic services and promotion of the use of Electronic Navigational Charts and Automatic Identification Systems with positive implications on maritime safety. yy The Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants policy will contribute to increased safety measures for transporting and handling POPs.

yy Cabotage , To carry cargo between two points within a country by a vessel or vehicle registered in another country

The primary safety risks for marine transportation in the Arctic are from various forms of ice, including: sea ice (ice of various ages that results from the freezing of the sea surface); icebergs (large masses of ice originating from glaciers); and ice islands (vast tabular icebergs originating from floating ice shelves). 4.1.2 Policy Not surprisingly, given the prospects of significantly increased shipping through the Arctic due to the reduction in sea ice as a result of global warming, marine transportation in the Arctic is a policy objective that is given some prominence by the majority of Arctic nations. yy Canada’s Northern Strategy: Our North, Our Heritage, Our Future identifies the strengthening of its land, sea and air capability and capacity as an implementation activity to strengthen its presence in the Arctic. yy The Kingdom of Denmark Strategy for the Arctic 2011–2020 places high importance on safety of marine transportation in the Arctic and Denmark has introduced improved control of cruise ships planning to sail to Greenland. New electronic nautical charts are being prepared for the busiest Greenland waters to ensure that they meet the demands of navigation based on GNSS. Another priority is adaptation of the existing Ice Services to the increased requirements for observation, forecasting and dissemination of ice conditions in Greenland waters due to changing climatic conditions and altered distribution of sea ice. In addition, enhanced surveillance of maritime traffic in the Arctic (e.g., with satellite based Automatic Identification System signal detection or S-AIS) will contribute to improved prevention of accidents and coordination of rescue efforts. yy Norway’s Government White Paper, The High North – vision and means notes that government policy will lead to increased navigation and drilling in the Barents Sea, which will create challenges connected to monitoring, oil spill response and evacuation. Monitoring ice extent and ice drift as an important navigational hazard will be critical, and voice communications and broadband connections in the high north will become important, both for day to day use and in emergencies. yy The Iceland in the High North report notes concern about the growing number of inadequately equipped cruise ships in ice- infested areas and states as a priority the encouragement of the International Maritime Organisation (IMO) to update and makemandatoryapplicationof relevantpartsof theGuidelines for Ships Operating in Arctic Ice-Covered Waters. Furthermore, Iceland believes that cooperation with other countries on preparedness and response measures for accidents and environmental emergencies must be strengthened. The feasibility of establishing international monitoring and response centers in Iceland, in connection with resource

yy The International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS) (particularly Chapter V) requires every mariner to

19 4. SAFETY

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