The Contribution of Space Technologies to Arctic Policy Priorities

radar (SAR) sensors are particularly relevant, such as Radarsat 1&2 (Canada), TerraSAR-X (Germany), and COSMO-SkyMed (Italy). Specialized satellites such as Cryosat (ESA) measure the extent and thickness of Arctic sea ice. High resolution optical imaging satellites include SPOT and Pleiades (France), and GeoEye and QuickBird (US). Limitations of current systems in the Arctic are largely due to limited spatial coverage and revisit frequency which particularly affects the generation of high-resolution products over large areas. In addition, the availability of image data in near-real- time is dependent on ground station coverage and satellite onboard resources. Europe is building the next generation of EO satellites designed to continue and build on current capabilities in SAR (Sentinel-1), high resolution optical (Sentien-2), ocean sensors (Sentinel-3) and atmosphere (Sentinel-4). In Canada, the RADARSAT Constellation mission will provide continuity and improved coverage for SAR. The recent loss of ENVISAT increases the urgency for these new missions. 3.5 Surveillance Satellite-basedsurveillance technologiesprovidevital information to stakeholders concerned with both sovereignty and safety. There are three satellite-based systems that help authorities keep track of the increasing marine and aviation activity in the Arctic. Search and Rescue Satellite S&R systems can provide a cost-effective means of ensuring lifesaving capabilities for polar accidents. COSPAS- SARSAT (COSPAS is an acronym for the Russian words “Cosmicheskaya Sistema Poiska Avariynyh Sudov”, or Space System for the Search of Vessels in Distress, and SARSAT is Search and Rescue Satellite-Aided Tracking system) provides accurate, timely, and reliable distress alert and location information to help search and rescue authorities assist persons in distress. The system was established in 1979 by Canada, France, the United States, and the former Soviet Union, and today the system has 43 participating countries and has been instrumental in saving more than 28,000 lives worldwide. 1 Marine Traffic Control Commercial S-AIS services are provided by exactView (Canada) and ORBCOMM (US). Both suppliers have plans to expand their satellite constellations. Norway is operating an S-AIS nanosatellite and is expected to launch a second satellite in 2012 to provide increased coverage. While these services have been available for some time, there are still issues with signal collisions, interference, time latency and update frequency. Expansion of the satellite constellations that service the Arctic is necessary to ensure that AIS will fully meet the safety standards required for marine transportation. Air Traffic Control Automatic Dependent Surveillance – Broadcast (ADS-B), a significantly lower cost and higher performance technology for

tracking aircraft than radar. The system relies on two avionics components – a high-integrity GNSS navigation source and a satellite data link (ADS-B unit). ADS-B uses GPS-supplied target information from aircraft as the basis for air traffic controllers to determine aircraft locations. ADS-B is currently being used for the high level airspace over Alaska, Hudson Bay, the high Arctic over Baffin Island, and along the coast of Newfoundland. It will be extended out over the ocean by 2012, with receiving sites that have been put in place on the southern tip of Greenland to cover a portion of their North Atlantic airspace, and will probably cover all of the Arctic in five years 2 . 3.6 Science While the majority of EO systems are also used by scientists and researchers around the globe, a number of dedicated satellite missionshavebeenlaunchedtoaddressspecificscientificobjectives (e.g.,ESAEarthExplorers).Thegravityfieldof theArcticOceanregion is of importance for global gravity field models, for geology and tectonics, as well as for navigation and orbit determination. For gravity satellite missions (e.g. GOCE/EU, GRACE/USA), the determinationofgravityfieldmodelsisaffectedbythelackofsatellite coverage around the poles, resulting in relatively large errors in the coefficients for the region. Space weather has a variety of impacts on technology, both in space (satellites and manned missions) and on the ground (pipelines, power systems, communication cables). Space weather phenomena occur when energetic particles thrown out from the Sun interact with the earth’s magnetic field producing magnetic disturbances and increased ionization in the ionosphere, between 100 and 1,000 km above the earth. While the Sun is the main driver of space weather impacts, other factors (e.g., radiation belt dynamics) also play an important role. Since the earth’s magnetic field is concentrated at the poles, high latitudes are particularly impacted by these disturbances. Planned satellite missions proposed to monitor the radiation belts include ERG/Japan, MMS/USA and RBSP/USA.

4. SAFETY 4.1 Marine Transportation 4.1.1 Overview

Marine transportation involves the movement on water of passengers and freight in the deep sea, and in coastal, harbour and inland water areas using a variety of vessels (e.g., passenger ships, tankers, freighters, barges and ferries). In the Arctic context, marine transportation can be considered to consist of the following modes or types of voyages (Arctic Council, 2009):

yy Destinational transport , where a ship sails to the Arctic, performs some activity in the Arctic and sails south

yy Intra-Arctic transport , a voyage or marine activity that stays within the general Arctic region and links two or more Arctic states

1 David Affens, et al, 2011. Innovation: The Distress Alerting Satellite System, GPS World, January 1, 2011, (see system-10883) 2 Information provided by interviewee


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