The Contribution of Space Technologies to Arctic Policy Priorities

2.3.3 Transportation Efficiency Transportation efficiency is mentioned in the policies of most Arctic nations and the European Union. Much of the focus is on cross polar air routes and the northern sea routes for international trade. Weather - Access to reliable and timely satellite weather forecasts is important for effective and cost-efficient route planning for marine, land and air transportation. Earth Observation – EO is necessary for the production of ice the charts used for marine navigation. For land navigation, real-time information on the ice edge, ice ridges and open water leads to better planning, which subsequently enables navigation via the shortest and safest route, important in reducing travel time, fuel costs, equipment wear and greenhouse gas emissions. 2.4 Sovereignty 2.4.1 National Boundaries National boundaries feature in most of the Arctic nation policies. Countries need to determine the shape of the seabed, depth of seafloor and thickness of the underlying sedimentary layer in order to justify the limits of their territory under the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS). Navigation – GNSS is used to determine the position of the equipment that measures the parameters necessary for the UNCLOS calculations. Science – Gravity science satellite missions are applicable to boundary measurements due to their contribution to the definition of the geoid. 2.4.2 Border Protection Protection of extensive national borders in the remote areas of the Arctic is of growing interest to most Arctic nations. Border protection usually includes the dual mandate of managing access to borders by people and goods moving over land, by sea and by air, while maintaining the integrity of the border and providing protection from threats to its security and prosperity. Communications – Robust and reliable communications systems (high speed internet and mobile phones) support both the security and operational needs of border protection activities. Navigation – Border control officers employ GNSS in their vehicles, vessels, or aircraft for navigation purposes and in some cases for determining in which jurisdiction or restricted area the incident occurs. Navigation – GNSS permits more precise and direct routes to destinations and around obstacles such as ice and weather.

of large volumes of digital satellite imagery data connected with the exploration, planning and operational phases of resource extraction.

Weather – Operational activities, such as off-shore drilling and fishing, need reliable and timely information about the weather.

Navigation – GNSS provide the critical positioning, navigation and timing services that are essential for Arctic operations, including mapping, positioning of resources, and movement of people and goods under extreme conditions. Earth Observation – The use of EO technologies has value in many stages of resource development projects including resource exploration and identification, infrastructure construction and operation, site monitoring (such as tailings size calculations), and safety of operations. It is also connected with the monitoring and mitigation of environmental impacts from resource extraction. 2.3.2 Infrastructure Policies related to economic development, in most cases, also recognize the critical need for improvements to regional infrastructure related to transportation (ports, terminals, and airports), communications, networks, and border crossings. Communications – The applications of communications systems for infrastructure are similar to the requirements for resource development. Effective communications systems are necessary for the construction and ongoing maintenance of both the ICT and transportation and energy infrastructures in the Arctic. Weather – Of particular concern in the Arctic region is permafrost and its impact on physical infrastructure. The warming climate is thawing permafrost, posing several risks including loss of mechanical strength of structures (foundations, pilings) due to freeze and thaw cycles. Improper design and construction methods have led to structural failure, expensive fixes and/or abandoned facilities. Global warming also accelerates the erosion of shorelines and riverbanks, threatening the infrastructure located in these areas. Navigation - GNSS applications that are necessary to infrastructure development include: position determination for planning and design; positioning of infrastructure right of ways and easements; precise positioning of infrastructure components; and navigation to infrastructure sites for repair and maintenance work. The precise timing capability of GNSS is also used by power generation companies to synchronize frequencies and to analyze problems. Earth Observation – EO has only limited applications in infrastructure development in the Arctic, primarily in the preliminary planning for location of assets, where high resolution optical imagery is a useful tool for investigating location and routing alternatives. Science – An improved understanding of space weather will assist in the mitigation of potential impacts on technology systems and infrastructure (i.e., communication cables, power systems, pipelines and radio communication and navigation systems).

Earth Observation – High resolution imaging systems help to ensure positive identification of illegal activities.

Surveillance – S-AIS, correlated with other sensors and information sources, such as EO can be used to help ensure compliance with areas of operation and help to identify vessels engaged in illegal activities.


Made with FlippingBook - professional solution for displaying marketing and sales documents online