• Improve understanding of the contribution of peatlands to greenhouse gas fluxes. • Increaseunderstandingof the costs andbenefits of restoration of peatland ecosystem services, and the opportunity costs of a ‘do-nothing’ or ‘business-as-usual’ approach. • Monitor and research appropriate restoration techniques suited to different peatland types and locations, with knowledge exchange playing an important part. • Use consistent methodologies in peatland research to enable better evaluation and comparison of published studies. • Provide a platform for communities, companies and government for exchange of lessons learned on sustainable alternatives for rewetted peatlands across the globe. Recommendation 7: Governments, industry and other stakeholders must invest in raising awareness about the importance of peatlands at a global, national and regional level if new land use planning policies and management ideas are going to be effective and benefit all. Recommendation 8: Ensure there is open dialogue, fair negotiation and social legitimacy from the local to the national level to implement any climate-responsible strategies. Millions of people rely on peatlands or land that has been converted from peatlands for their food, water and livelihoods. Support is needed to assist communities using peatlands to manage them sustainably and develop livelihood alternatives to halt and cease destructive practices.

Recommendation 3: The necessary fiscal arrangements must be put in place to support new research and fund conservation and management activity, discourage damaging activities and ensure the restoration and good management of peatlands into the future. These arrangements must assist governments that are unable to pay for extensive research, restoration or other activities. In these cases, private sector involvement is required. Recommendation4: Channel funding for responsiblepeatlands policy development and management through international mechanisms such as the Nationally Determined Contribution framework, REDD+ and Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAs) under the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change. Accounting for carbon stocks within forested peatlands under REDD+ could foster long-term protection. Recommendation 5: Create an institutional framework built around coordinated action to ensure good practices across the globe in peatland management. As part of this, ensure involvement of local communities in the development and implementation of sustainable management plans. Recommendation 6: Improved management and protection requires that the research and knowledge gaps identified in this report be addressed, especially the following requirements: • Develop a better understanding of the state and extent of global peatlands to inform better peatland management for climate change mitigation and provision of ecosystem services,


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