Mine Tailings Storage: Safety Is No Accident
cement has been studied for many years, and attempts have been made to render it a sustainable commercial proposition.
led to greater cooperation between industry and academia. Under the Horizon 2020 initiative, the European Union is funding substantial research programmes on the recovery of materials from and the utilization of bauxite residue. The Zero-Waste Valorisation of Bauxite Residue project is focusing on the extraction of iron, aluminium, titanium and rare-earth elements, and the production of new building materials. A European Innovation Partnership – Bauxite Residue and Aluminium Valorisation Operations (BRAVO) – has also been formed to bring together industry, researchers and stakeholders to explore the best available technologies for recovering critical raw materials (BRAVO 2017). The Alumina Technology Roadmap (2010) has a strategic goal of 20 per cent reuse by 2025 and the Chinese government a target of 25 per cent. Research and development investment continues in the search for application breakthroughs.
Extraction of rare-earth and other metals: Strongly growing markets and the very high prices in recent years for certain rare-earth elements has reawakened interest in their extraction from bauxite residue. Light and heavy rare-earth metals (e.g. lanthanum, cerium, neodymium, praseodymium, terbium, etc.) plus scandium and yttrium are among the elements of interest. The global ambition for more efficient use of resources has led to increased efforts in looking into uses of bauxite residue over the past few years. Increased enthusiasm from industry, more university activities and the contribution of funds from organizations such as the European Union has
Construction using bricks made from residue
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