Marine Atlas: Maximizing Benefits for Vanuatu


Pump It: Particulate Organic Carbon Flux

Smoke Under Water, Fire In The Sea: Tectonic Activity

All maps contain the following data layers:

Becker, J. J., Sandwell, D. T., Smith, W. H. F., Braud, J., Binder, B. J. Depner, D. Fabre, J. Factor, S. Ingalls, S-H. Kim, R. Ladner, K. Marks, S. Nelson, A. Pharaoh, Sharman, G., Trimmer, R., vonRosenburg, J., Wal- lace, G., and Weatherall, P. (2009). Global Bathymetry and Elevation Data at 30 Arc Seconds Resolution: SRTM30_PLUS, Marine Geodesy, 32:4, 355-371. Claus S., N. De Hauwere, B. Vanhoorne, F. Souza Dias, P. Oset García, F. Hernandez, and J. Mees (Flanders Marine Institute) (2016). Accessed at http://www. on 2016-10-21. Smith, W. H. F., and Sandwell, D. T. (1997). Global seafloor topography from satellite altimetry and ship depth soundings, Science, v. 277, p. 1957-1962.

MAP Lutz, M., Caldeira, K., Dunbar, R. and Behrenfeld, M. (2007). Seasonal rhythms of net primary production and particulate organic carbon flux to depth describe the efficiency of biological pump in the global ocean. Journal of Geophysical Research, 112 (C10). TEXT Higgs, N. D.; Gates, A. R.; Jones, D. O. B.; Valentine, J. F. (2014). “Fish Food in the Deep Sea: Revisiting the Role of Large Food-Falls”. PLOS ONE. 9 (5): e96016. Pascal N. (2015). “Economic valuation of marine and coastal ecosystem services : ecosystem service of coastal protection — Fiji, Kiribati, Tonga, Vanuatu and the Solomon Islands.” Report to the MACBIO project. GIZ/IUCN/SPREP, Suva, Fiji. Russo, J. Z. (2004). “This Whale’s (After) Life”. NOAA’s Undersea Research Program. NOAA. Retrieved 13 November 2010. Suess, E. (1980). Particulate organic carbon flux in the oceans—surface productivity and oxygen utilization. Nature 288, 260 – 263. MAPS NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Ocean Ecology Laboratory, Ocean Biology Processing Group. (2014). “Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Aqua Photosynthetically Available Radiation Data” NASA OB.DAAC. TEXT Dupouy, C., Dirberg, G., Tenório, M. Jacques, N., Le Bouteiller, A. (2004). “Surveillance des Trichodesmium autour de la Nouvelle-Calédonie, du Vanuatu, de Fidji et de Tonga (1998-2004).” Fabricius, K.E. (2005). “Effects of terrestrial runoff on the ecology of corals and coral reefs: review and synthe- sis”. Mar Pollut Bull. 50, 125 – 146. Vanuatu Meteorology and Geo-Hazards Department. (2016). Accessed at index.php. Matear, R. J. and B. Elliott. (2004). “Enhancement of oceanic uptake of anthropogenic CO 2 by macronutri- ent fertilization”. J. Geophys. Res. 109 (C4): C04001. MAP Andréfouët, S., F. E. Muller-Karger, J. A. Robinson, C. J. Kranenburg, D. Torres-Pulliza, S. A. Spraggins, and B. Murch. (2005). “Global assessment of modern coral reef extent and diversity for regional science and management applications: a view from space.” 10th International Coral Reef Symposium. Japanese Coral Reef Society, Okinawa, Japan. Natural Earth. (2017). Populated Places. Accessed at: Spalding M.D., Blasco F. and Field C.D. (1997). “World Mangrove Atlas”. Okinawa (Japan): International Society for Mangrove Ecosystems. 178 pp. Compiled by UNEP-WCMC, in collaboration with the Inter- national Society for Mangrove Ecosystems (ISME). (version 3). TEXT Bani, E. & Esrom, D. (1993). ‘Republic of Vanuatu’, In Scott, DA, IUCN Directory of Wetlands in Oceania, Ramsar Bureau, International Waterfowl and Wetlands Research Bureau (IWRB), Asian Wetland Bureau (AWB) and the South Pacific Regional Environment Programme (SPREP). Laffoley, D.d’A. (2013). The management of coastal carbon sinks in Vanuatu: realising the potential: A report to the Government of Vanuatu, Commonwealth Secretariat, London. Home, Sweet Home: Coastal Habitats Soak Up The Sun: Photosynthetically Available Radiation

MAP Beaulieu, S.E. (2015). InterRidge Global Database of Active Submarine Hydrothermal Vent Fields: prepared for InterRidge, Version 3.3. World Wide Web electronic publication. Version 3.4. Accessed at http://vents-da- on 2017-01-13. Earthquake Hazards Program. (2017). Earthquake epicenters 1980-2016. U.S. Geological Survey. Accessed at http:// on 14 Feb 2017. Global Volcanism Program. (2013). Volcanoes of the World, v. 4.5.3. Venzke, E (ed.). Smithsonian Institu- tion. Accessed at VOTW4-2013. IHO-IOC GEBCO. (2017). “Gazetteer of Undersea Fea- ture Names”. Accessed at TEXT Vanuatu Ministry of Lands and Natural Ressources. (2014). “Vanuatu’s Geological History.” Accessed at: MAPS ESR. (2009). OSCAR third degree resolution ocean surface currents. Ver. 1. PO. DAAC, CA, USA. Ac- cessed [2017-01-13] at CAR-03D01 on 2017-01-13. Tyberghein L., Verbruggen H., Pauly K., Troupin C., Mineur F. & De Clerck O. (2012). “Bio-ORACLE: a global environmental dataset for marine species distri- bution modeling.” Global Ecology and Biogeography. TEXT Cai, W., Borlace, S., Lengaigne, M., Van Rensch, P., Collins, M., Vecchi, G., Timmermann, A., Santoso, A., McPhaden, M. J., Wu, L., England, M. H., Wang, G., Guilyardi, E. and Jin, F. (2014). “Increasing frequency of extreme El Nino events due to greenhouse warm- ing.” Nature Climate Change. Accessed at https:// Climate Prediction Center. (2005). “Frequently Asked Questions about El Niño and La Niña”. National Centers for Environmental Prediction. Retrieved 17 July 2009. Falkowski, P.G., Barber, R.T., Smetacek, V. (1998). Biogeochemical controls and feedbacks on ocean primary production. Science (Washington, D. C.), 281 (1998), p. 200. Gogina, M. & Zettler, M.L. (2010) Diversity and distri- bution of benthic macrofauna in the Baltic Sea. Data inventory and its use for species distribution modelling and prediction. Journal of Sea Research, 64, 313–321. Kessler, W.S. and Gourdeau, L., (2006). Wind‐driven zonal jets in the South Pacific Ocean. Geophysical Research Letters, 33(3). Lüning, K. (1990) Seaweeds: their environment, biogeogra- phy, and ecophysiology. John Wiley and Sons, New York. Rahmstorf, S. (2003). “The concept of the thermohaline circulation”. Nature. 421 (6924): 699. Webb, D. (2000). “Evidence for shallow zonal jets in the South Equatorial Current region of the southwest Pacific”. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 30, 706–720. MAP Scott A. Condie and Jeff R. Dunn (2006). Seasonal characteristics of the surface mixed layer in the Aus- tralasian region: implications for primary production regimes and biogeography. Marine and Freshwater Research, 2006, 57, 1-22. TEXT Jeffrey, S.W., and Hallegraeff, G. M. (1990). “Phytoplank- ton ecology of Australian waters”. Biology of Marine Plants. pp. 310–348. Go With The Flow: Salinity and Surface Currents Stir It Up: Mixed Layer Depth

Sources for maps and narratives containing additional data are available below:

A Large Ocean State: Administration

MAP Natural Earth. (2017). “Populated Places.” Accessed at: TEXT CIA (2017) “Vanuatu”. The World Factbook. CIA. Ac- cessed at: the-world-factbook/geos/nh.html.


Still Waters Run Deep: Ocean Depth

MAP IHO-IOC GEBCO. (2017). “Gazetteer of Undersea Fea- ture Names”. Accessed at TEXT Accessed at: https://www.worlddata. info/ on 6.13.2018.

Voyage To The Bottom Of The Sea: Geomorphology

MAP Harris, P.T., Macmillan-Lawler, M., Rupp, J. and Baker, E.K. (2014). Geomorphology of the oceans. Marine Geology, 352: 4-24.

Under Water Mountains: Seamount Morphology

MAP Macmillan-Lawler, M. and Harris, P.T. (2016) Chapter 17: Multivariate Classification of Seamount Morphology: Assessing Seamount Morphotypes in Relation to Ma- rine Jurisdictions and Bioregions in Ocean Solutions – Earth Solutions, Editor Wright, D.J. ESRI Press. IHO-IOC GEBCO. (2017). “Gazetteer of Undersea Fea- ture Names”. Accessed at TEXT Clark, M.R. et al., (2010). The ecology of seamounts: structure, function, and human impacts. Annual review of marine science, 2, pp.253–278. Harris, P.T., Macmillan-Lawler, M., Rupp, J. and Baker, E.K. (2014). Geomorphology of the oceans. Marine Geology, 352: 4-24. Macmillan-Lawler, M. and Harris, P.T. (2015). Chapter 17: Multivariate Classification of Seamount orphology: As- sessing Seamount Morphotypes in Relation to Marine Jurisdictions and Bioregions. p329 – 356. In Ocean Solutions, Earth Solutions, second edition. Editor: Wright, D. ESRI Press. Rex, M.A., Etter, R.J., Clain, A.J., et al. (1999). Bathyme- tric patterns of body size in deep-sea gastropods. Evolution 53, 1298–1301.



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