Marine Atlas: Maximizing Benefits for Fiji

ONE WORLD, ONE OCEAN: INTERNATIONAL MARITIME ORGANIZATION (IMO) MARPOL CONVENTION Fiji’s marine values do not stop at national borders. This makes international cooperation increasingly important for effective management of values and their uses, such as mining, fisheries and shipping.

Fiji has sovereign rights over a vast marine area of 1.3 million km 2 . This area is rich in marine values and managed through various local, national and international instruments (see also chapter “Space to recover”). However, nearly half the Earth is cov- ered by areas of the ocean that lie beyond national jurisdictions. Marine Areas Beyond National Juris- diction (ABNJ), commonly called the high seas, are those areas of ocean for which no one nation has sole managerial responsibility. In the Pacific and around Fiji (see map “A sea of islands”), there are many high sea pockets that are connected to very important ecosystems and fisheries. Yet, marine species and ecosystems do not abide by the country borders shown on the map, as everything is connected in the ocean (see also chapter “Go with the flow” and “Travellers or homebodies”). Similarly, threats to marine values go beyond na- tional boundaries. Hence, holistic, sustainable and effective marine management calls for appropriate international instruments. Fiji is therefore part of the international govern- ance structures for the ocean, which follow a multisectoral approach and involve a plethora of organizations (see graphic) dedicated to different uses, be it mining (see also chapter “Underwater Wild West”), fisheries (see also chapter “Fishing in the dark”) or shipping (see also chapter “Full speed ahead”). Addressing the latter, the Convention for the Pre- vention of Pollution from Ships (MARPOL 73/78; see map) is an important international instrument that applies to Fiji’s waters. Developed by the IMO in an effort to preserve the marine environment, it attempts to completely eliminate pollution by oil and other harmful substances, to minimize acci- dental spillages of such substances and to pre- vent air pollution from ships. The MARPOL 73/78 Convention contains six technical annexes, most of which include Special Areas with strict controls on operational discharges: Covers prevention of pollution by oil from op- erational measures as well as from accidental discharges. • Annex II Regulations for the Control of Pollution by Noxious Liquid Substances in Bulk (entered into force 2 October 1983) Details the discharge criteria and measures for the control of pollution by noxious liquid substances carried in bulk. No discharge of res- idues containing noxious substances is permit- ted within 12 miles of the nearest land. • Annex III Prevention of Pollution by Harmful Substances Carried by Sea in Packaged Form (entered into force 1 July 1992) • Annex I Regulations for the Prevention of Pollu- tion by Oil (entered into force 2 October 1983)

ling, documentation, stowage, quantity limita- tions, exceptions and notifications.

Under invasion

In addition to pollution, international ship- ping routes pose another threat to Fiji’s ma- rine values in the form of invasive species. Since the arrival of humans on the Pacific Islands, they have deliberately brought with them species that are useful for their survival, yet unwanted species have also been accidentally introduced. One of the major vectors for introduced species is the ballast water of ships. Some of the unwant- ed species get out of control and can cause enormous ecological, economic or health problems. These “invasive” species are also known as “pest” species. In response, the Pacific has developed the Pacific Inva- sives Partnership (PIP) as a coordinating body for international agencies that provide services to Pacific countries and territories. their ecological, socioeconomic or scientific signifi- cance, or vulnerability to harm from maritime activ- ities, require special protection from IMO. A PSSA can be protected, for example, by implementing routing measures, which prevent ships from enter- ing the area. Beyond addressing pollution and invasive spe- cies, the Pacific Oceanscape Framework provides orientation at the regional level for sustainable marine management.

• Annex IV Prevention of Pollution by Sewage from Ships (entered into force 27 September 2003)

Contains requirements to control pollution of the sea by sewage; the discharge of sewage into the sea is prohibited, except when the ship has in operation an approved sewage treatment plant or when the ship is discharging commi- nuted and disinfected sewage using an ap- proved system at a distance of more than three nautical miles from the nearest land; sewage which is not comminuted or disinfected has to be discharged at a distance of more than 12 nautical miles from the nearest land.

• Annex V Prevention of Pollution by Garbage from Ships (entered into force 31 December 1988)

Deals with different types of garbage and specifies the distances from land and the manner in which they may be disposed of; the most important fea- ture of the annex is the complete ban imposed on the disposal into the sea of all forms of plastics..

• Annex VI Prevention of Air Pollution from Ships (entered into force 19 May 2005)

Sets limits on sulphur oxide and nitrogen oxide emissions from ship exhausts and prohib- its deliberate emissions of ozone depleting substances; designated emission control areas set more stringent standards for SOx, NOx and particulate matter.

International Governance Structures for the Ocean—Multi-sectoral Approach and a Plethora of Organizations

In addition, Fiji is in the process of declaring Par- ticularly Sensitive Sea Areas (PSSA), which due to

International Governance Structures for the Ocean—Multi-sectoral Approach and a Plethora of Organizations International Governance Structures for the Ocean – Multi-sectoral Approach and a Plethora of Organizations

Annual Report on Oceans and Seas Annual Report on Oceans and Seas

UN-Oceans (Interagency collaboration mechanism) UN-Oceans (Interagency collaboration mechanism) ILO



Annual Omnibus Resolution

Commission on Limits of the Continental Shelf

Of‡ce of Legal Aairs DOALOS







Fish Stocks Agreement

Relevant treaties and provisions


Convention Migratory Species


1994 Agrmt




Compliance Agreement




Annual Omnibus Resolution

Commission on Limits of the Continental Shelf

MARPOL + Annexes

17 Regional Fisheries Management Organisations



Of‡ce of Legal Aairs DOALOS


Aichi Target 11


International Whaling Commission

13 Regional Seas Programmes

London Convention



Antarctic Treaty System (ATS)

The Arctic Council

5 Partner Programmes

CBD Convention on Biological Diversity; CITES The Convention on InternationalTrade in Endangered Species ofWild Fauna and Flora; DOALOS Division for OceanAairs and the Law of the Sea; FAO Food and Agriculture Organization [of the United Nations]; ILO International Labour Organization; IMO International Maritime Organization; IOC Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission; ISA International Seabed Authority; ITLOS InternationalTribunal for the Law of the Sea; MARPOL International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships; PSMA Agreement on Port State Measures to Prevent,Deter and Eliminate Illegal,Unreported and Unregulated Fishing; RFMOs Regional Fisheries Management Organisations; SOLAS International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea; UNDP United Nations Development Programme; UNEP United Nations Environment Programme; UNESCO United Nations Educational,Scienti‡c and Cultural Organization; UNGA United Nations GeneralAssembly; UNSG United Nations Secretary-General

Contains general requirements for the issuing of detailed standards on packing, marking, label-





conflicts with other SDGs in order to promote integrated implementation. But the sustainability goals for the ocean still lack bite. There will be a first chance in June 2017 at


Deep-sea mining presents an additional challenge for

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