Each of the big five stressors (not in order of magnitude), 1) Climate change ; 2) Pollution (mainly coastal), 3) Fragmenta- tion and habitat loss (from e.g. dredging/trawling, use of explosives in fishing on coral reefs etc.), 4) Invasive species infestations , and 5) Over-harvest from fisheries may individu- ally or combined result in severe impacts on the biological production of the worlds oceans and the services they provide to billions of people today. If climate change accelerates, the impacts on marine life from the other stressors will become severely exacerbated and the ability of ecosystems to recover will be impaired.
Frag- mentation and habitat loss
Over- harvesting from fisheries
Pollution (mainly coastal)
Figure 8. Primary threats to the Worlds oceans include the ‘Big Five’ stressors.