How to Identify Forest Crime: Africa

A Centre Collaborating with UNEP

HOW TO IDENTIFY FOREST CRIME AFRICA

1

2

HOW TO IDENTIFY FOREST CRIME AFRICA

A Centre Collaborating with UNEP

3

FROM THE FORESTS TO THE STORES

It is important to track timber along the entire timber supply chain and to ensure compliance with the laws at each stage.

Ian Redmond Reuters/Naco Doche/Scanpix

AKG-Images/Scanpix

STAGE 2

• Via roads on trucks (obvious and visible cargo) • Via waterways by boats (obvious and visible cargo) • Via waterways by floating timber TRANSPORTATION TO SAWMILLS

STAGE 1

• Concession area • Protected area HARVEST

STAGE 3

• Sawmills • Pulp mills (e.g. wood chips) • Paper mills PROCESSING

4

Christian Nellemann

STAGE 4

• Via national and international road networks on trucks (packed cargo) • Via national and international waterways by boats (packed cargo) TRANSPORTATION TO STORES

Wei Peiquan/Corbis/All Over Press

STAGE 5

CONSUMPTION

• National markets • International markets

5

ILLEGAL HARVESTING

Christian Nellemann

An example of an invalid logging permit.

IDENTIFY

!

ILLEGAL HARVESTING

• No logging permit • Invalid logging permit (expired or fake permit) • Invalid permit for harvest, species and types of transportation • Harvest in unauthorized sites

6

Peter Prokosch

Harvesting is illegal behind signs of national parks.

AKG-Images/Scanpix

7

Toby Smith/EIA

A log of Rosewood, a CITES-listed endangered species in Madagascar.

• Cutting of high-value endangered species listed in the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) • Invalid documents (including the CITES permit) • Illegal logs of protected species mixed in supply for pulp industry ILLEGAL HARVESTING ! IDENTIFY

Logs of Afrormosia, a CITES-listed endangered species in Congo.

8

AFP Photo/Jiro Ose/Scanpix

9

AGRICULTURE ANDPLANTA- TIONS REPLACING FORESTS

Prill Mediendesign & Fotografie/iStock

Forests are also cleared to make room for cash crops and to establish and expand palm oil plantations.

10

Apichat Naweewong/iStock

An agricultural area close to the boarder of the Bwindi Impenetrable Forest in Uganda.

• Forests cleared for cash crops with invalid permits • Forests in national parks or illegal concession areas cleared for agriculture ILLEGAL LOGGING ! DETECT

11

CHARCOAL PRODUCTION Monitoring charcoal production and trade is particularly important in Africa. Charcoal production may be carried out illegally, and income from this trade may be used to support criminal activities across Africa.

Christian Nellemann

Trucks loaded with charcoal in Uganda.

Charcoal ready to be transported in Uganda.

12

DETECT

!

• Charcoal kilns in national parks ILLEGAL LOGGING

Christian Nellemann

13

TRANSPORTATION TO SAWMILLS

Ian Redmond

Ian Redmond

Transportation of logs by trucks.

Transportation of logs by waterways.

• No permit for transportation • Reusing the same permit • Passing checkpoints without permit ILLEGAL LOGS ON TRANSPORT ROUTES ! DETECT

14

Sawmills may have illegally logged protected species in storage. PROCESSING

Reuters/Naco Doche/Scanpix

A worker cuts illegally logged timber at a sawmill.

• Oversized timber in sawmills or other processing spots • Timber of protected species (probably high-density timber) in sawmills or other processing spots • Overstock accumulated in sawmills or other processing spots • Failure to make a dent with a sharp object into a piece of timber. If it is high density timber, it is possibly old growth rainforest timber ILLEGAL LOGS ! IDENTIFY

15

TRANSPORTATION TO STORES

Christian Nellemann

Corbis/All Over Press

Planks transported by trucks.

Floating timber by the Libreville harbor in Gabon.

• Underreported transportation of timber by vessels down rivers and/or by trucks on roads • Smuggling with false permits ILLEGAL TRANSPORTATION ! DETECT

16

Logger camps rely on“bushmeat” from endangered species such as gorillas and great apes. In addition, loggers may also engage in ivory and rhino horn trade. WILDLIFE POACHING

Corbis/All Over Press

Apes heads and hands for sale.

Apes are critically endangered due to loss of habitat and poaching for bushmeat.

Science Photo Library/Scanpix

17

AP Photo/STR/Scanpix

Illegal ivory seized by Kenyan officials at the Port of Mombasa.

• Poaching endangered species listed in the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) • Illegal ivory trade ILLEGAL WILDLIFE POACHING ! DETECT

18

1. Secure the outer crime scene from contamination by you, your colleagues or other bystanders. Park any vehicle at least 100 m away. Do not move anything. PROSECUTION UPON ARREST OF A SUSPECT 3. Prepare a sketch of the crime scene showing the precise location and relationship between objects and evidence. 4. Record any footprints, footwear or incriminating signs revealing what happened OR that link suspects to the crime scene. 5. Collect or seize any item you consider relevant to the crime scene, preferably using a pencil, glove or stick. Place items in separate bags or folded sheets of paper. 6. Prepare a short report or write down keywords while at the site including anything of relevance that can be counted, e.g. tracks, seized items (weapons, ammo, cutting items, wildlife parts, bags of coal or logs), and people present – along with the date, time, estimated time passed since the criminal action, time you spent at crime scene, location description and/or coordinates. Ensure that the information collected is sufficient for locating the site at a later time. 2. Take photographs.

19

HOW TO IDENTIFY FOREST CRIME AFRICA

ISBN: 978-82-7701-127-1

GRID-Arendal P.O. Box 183 N-4802 Arendal Norway

+47 4764 4555 grid@grida.no www.grida.no

INTERPOL General Secretariat Environmental Security Sub-Directorate 200 quai Charles de Gaulle 69006 Lyon, France environmentalcrime@interpol.int

Corbis/All Over Press

20

Made with FlippingBook Learn more on our blog