In the years and decades to come, adaptation that integrates and respects local knowledge and Indigenous knowledge will be vital to help Arctic societies address the coming challenges. “
• International coordination and action outside the Arctic, including through the Convention on Migratory Species, to limit or stop overharvesting and habitat degradation in critical staging or wintering grounds is crucial for the conservation of Arctic migratory species. • Future ocean acidification will likely mean changes in Arctic organisms and ecosystems reach a scale that will affect human societies. • Early warning and further research and understanding is needed to adequately prepare for and prevent the spread of new, climate-sensitive zoonotic diseases in the Arctic. • The risk of new invasive species both on land and at sea is also likely to rise in the future. This will require coordinated national and international action, including the measures outlined in documents such as the Arctic Invasive Alien Species Strategy and Action Plan. • Arctic marine conservation is not always well prepared for all environmental changes as protected areas do not always cover biodiversity and ecological hotspots. • To adapt to the coming changes, Arctic protected areas and networks on land and at sea will need to be flexible and adaptable to remain effective at conserving biodiversity. An example of this is being able to accommodate changes in species and ecosystem ranges as a result of climate change. Indigenous Peoples and other local communities must be involved in the creation, control and governance of protected and conserved areas to ensure fair and sustainable management of ecosystems and resilient local livelihoods, as outlined in Aichi Biodiversity Target 11.