Barents Sea. While still considered invasive, harvesting red king crab has become a profitable industry for Norway and Russia (Lorentzen et al., 2018). Conversely, Arctic species have also been introduced in other parts of the world, for example the Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), which has been introduced to Chile, Tasmania and the Pacific coast of the United States for commercial farming (Jones, 2004). The ballast waters and hulls of commercial ships are the main means by which marine invasive species are transported and introduced to new coastal areas. One of the biggest concerns is the expected increase in shipping in and across the Arctic, since an ice-free Northern Sea Route offers major advantages for ships sailing between Europe and Asia compared to the Suez or Panama canals. Although the volume of trans-Arctic shipping is currently low, it is projected to rise over the coming decades (Melia et al., 2016; Smith and Stephenson, 2013). This
development is significant because it will likely bring a wave of new marine species into the Arctic and northern hemisphere, creating new opportunities for their transfer between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans (Miller and Ruiz, 2014). By acting now, countries have a unique opportunity to limit the spread of invasive species. Recent measures, such as the International Convention for the Control and Management of Ships’ Ballast Water and Sediments and its enforcement in Arctic waters through the International Code for Ships Operating in Polar Waters are designed to help to prevent the spread of marine invasive species in the Arctic. Furthermore, the Protection of the Arctic Marine Environment (PAME) and CAFF working groups of the Arctic Council have developed the Arctic Invasive Alien Species Strategy and Action Plan setting out a circumpolar strategy based on the principles of prevention, early detection, rapid response, eradication and control.
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