varying contamination levels in different foods and areas of the Arctic. Consumption of most traditional foods is recommended as a healthy choice, prioritizing foods lower down the food chain with lower concentrations of contaminants. (AMAP, 2015d). High concentrations of chemicals and heavy metals in humans have also been linked to cancer, cardiovascular diseases and negative effects on the nervous system. Although the general trend in the Arctic has been a decline in human exposure to most metals and POPs, Inuit communities in Canada and Greenland are exceptions (AMAP, 2015d).
of their effects on humans and wildlife remains limited, highlighting the need for research on the cumulative effects of exposure to different stressors and the interrelated effects of different chemicals (AMAP, 2018b). Our understanding of contaminants must also take climate change into account, as it is projected to change transportation routes, flows in the food web and the level of ecosystem exposure (AMAP, 2015d, 2018b). Hormone-disrupting chemicals and climate change are regarded as one of the most serious anthropogenic threats to biodiversity and ecosystems in the Arctic AMAP (2018b) and international cooperation and treaties to regulate the use of harmful chemicals play an important role in addressing this threat.
The emergence of new chemical contaminants is a continuous threat in the Arctic and around the globe. Our knowledge