GEO-6 Chapter 7: Oceans and Coasts

Figure 7.1: Generalized schematic showing the drivers and pressures relevant to the marine environment


Direct drivers

T o

i e s

u r i

h e r

s m

f i s

r e

p t u

C a

Indirect drivers




A g

t u r

r i c

c u l

u l t

u a

u r e

Principal drivers Population growth Urbanisation

A q

Economic Development Technology & Innovation Climate Change



C o


a s t

t r y

a l d

d u s

e v e

e i n

l o p

t i v

m e

r a c

E x t

n t

n g

i p p i

S h

The central circle represents major high-level drivers of change in human demands on the ocean. The inner ring represents the types of societal needs promoted by the drivers, and the outer ring represents the industry sectors addressing the needs, for which policies are commonly established. The needs expressed through sector actions are the relevant pressures.

Oceans and Coasts 179

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