and cultural benefits; and supporting services such as nutrient cycling, which maintain the conditions for life on Earth.
Afforestation Establishment of forest plantations on land that is not classified as forest. Agro-forestry The practice of traditional and modern land-use where trees are managed together with crops and/or animal production in agricultural settings. Biocapacity The capacity of ecosystems to produce useful biological materials and to absorb waste materials generated by humans, using available extraction technologies. Ecological Footprint A measure of how much area of biologically productive land and water an individual, population or activity requires to produce all the resources it consumes and to absorb the waste it generates, using prevailing technology and resource management practices. Ecological overshoot The situation that occurs when humanity’s demand on the biosphere exceeds supply or regenerative capacity. Ecosystem A dynamic and complex set of plant, animal and micro- organism communities and their non-living environment interacting as a functional unit. Ecosystem approaches Strategies for the integrated management of land, water and living resources that promote conservation and sustainable use in an equitable way. Ecosystem approaches recognize that humans, with their cultural diversity, are an integral component of many ecosystems. Ecosystem-Based Management (EBM) An environmental management approach that recognizes the full array of interactions within an ecosystem, including humans, rather than considering single issues, species or ecosystem services in isolation. Ecosystem services The benefits of ecosystems, including provisioning services such as food and water; regulating services such as flood and disease control; cultural services such as spiritual, recreational Deforestation Conversion of forested land to non-forest areas.
Ecosystem-Based Fisheries Management (EBFM) An approach that strives to balance diverse societal objectives, by taking into account the knowledge and uncertainties about biotic, abiotic and human components of ecosystems and their interactions and applying an integrated approach to fisheries within ecologically meaningful boundaries. It considers the impact fisheries have on all components of the broader marine environment, as well as the impact of other marine and coastal activities on fisheries. Food loss due to environmental degradation Potential or absolute decrease in food production caused by environmental degradation. Such losses also refer to food that will never be produced due to the degradation of ecosystems. Food loss A decrease in mass or nutritional value of food that was originally intended for human consumption. These losses are mainly caused by inefficiencies in the food supply chain such as poor infrastructure and logistics, lack of technology, insufficient skills, knowledge and management capacity of supply chain actors, and lack of access to markets. Natural disasters also cause food loss. Food is lost during pre-harvest production, post-harvest handling and storage and processing Food waste Food appropriate for human consumption, which is discarded, whether or not after it has been kept beyond its expiry date or left to spoil. Food waste is often due to food having been spoilt, but it can also be for other reasons such as oversupply or individual consumer shopping/eating habits. Food waste occurs at distribution and household consumption levels. Integrated coastal zone management (ICZM) An approach that considers economic, social and ecological perspectives in the management of coastal resources and areas. Integrated farming A resource-efficient crop, fish and livestock production system that seeks to maintain productivity and profitability, while at the same time protecting the environment and the health of farmers and their families. It involves the recycling of farm waste for productive purposes, and takes the form of crop-fish integration, livestock-fish integration, crop-fish-livestock integration or a combination of crop, livestock, fish and other enterprises. Ghost fishing Lost or abandoned fishing gear that continues to catch fish.