based aquaculture (UNEP 2011b). The Marine Protected Areas are similar in that the objective is to protect special habitats or species through no-take reserves, maintain livelihoods, facilitate restoration or control access to an area. In the San Andres Archipelago in Colombia, an MPA was established in 2000 as a first step towards EBM, to conserve the largest open ocean coral reefs in the Caribbean as well as protecting the livelihoods and tenure of the people (Agardy 2010). Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) aims to achieve sustainable use of the coast by coordinating the initiatives of various coastal economic sectors, such as agriculture, fisheries and shipping, targeting all levels of governance and encouraging the involvement of all stakeholders in the planning of management strategies for the coast (Clark1992; Post and Lundin 1996). The link between eutrophication of water bodies due to agricultural pollution and reduced fish stocks is one example of the inter-linkage between human land-based activities and water bodies. In worst-case scenarios, agricultural runoff and seepage of phosphorus and nitrogen into water systems create so-called ‘dead zones’ that impact fish populations and other aquatic biodiversity. Such negative side effects can be avoided through ICZM (Clark 1992). ICZM can therefore serve as a good starting point for EBM. From assessing the sustainable use of coastal areas, EBM can further link land use activities in the coastal zone to the ocean (UNEP 2011b).