Food Wasted, Food Lost

coastal development, environmental and other relevant sectors’ policies must be coordinated. EBM does not compete with other holistic management approaches, such as Ecosystem-Based Fisheries Management (EBFM), Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) or Marine Protected Areas (MPAs). Rather these become tools to successfully implement EBM or where they are already in place EBM builds on them (Garcia et al. 2003; UNEP 2011b). Through EBM and related management approaches, food loss andwaste due to degraded ecosystems and poor management practices could be averted. For example, EBFM considers the status of commercial fish stocks and ecosystem components that interact with and thus threaten those stocks, such as predators, prey and habitats (WWF 2007; UNEP 2011b; Nguyen 2012). In Brazil, the government and local authorities have engaged with communities and the fishery sector to develop a management scheme, which ensures that fishers have sustainable livelihoods while also protecting fish stocks and habitats. The management scheme includes fish refugia, areas zoned for multiple use, restrictions on gear to reduce by-catch and discards and support for small-scale fisheries and family-

At the same time, aquatic ecosystems are being degraded through pollution from coastal development, intensive fishing methods and aquaculture, while ocean temperatures are increasing due to anthropogenic climate change, which is destroying the vulnerable coral reefs. These problems have led to increased recognition that better fisheries management is necessary to restore aquatic ecosystems and fish stocks. To do this fisheries management needs to become more holistic as well as better integrated with other sectors that have competing interests for ocean, coastal and freshwater resources. Ecosystem-Based Management (EBM) is one such management practice that has gained momentum in recent years and which can be applied to marine and coastal areas, freshwater fisheries and aquaculture. While traditional fisheries management tends to view fish species in isolation from each other, EBM is a cross-sectoral approach that addresses the impacts fisheries have on the marine ecosystems as well as the impact that other sectors, such as agriculture or shipping, have on fisheries. On a policy level this means that fisheries, maritime, energy, agriculture,


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