Environment and Security
Preface / Introduction
Environment and Security / 5
Ferghana is a small country, abounding in grain and fruits.
Ferghana is situated in the fifth climate and at the limit of settled habitation. It is girt round by mountains except on the west.
Environment and security in the Ferghana valley
Central Asia stands at the crossroads between Asia, Europe and the Middle East. Osh, Kokand, Ferghana and Khujand are names that bring tomind the ancient Silk Road. This pub- lication focuses on the Ferghana – Osh – Khujand area (also referred to below as the Ferghana valley). The Ferghana valley is the most fertile, densely populated region in the whole of Central Asia and retains, in some respects, the importance it enjoyed when it was a stage along the ancient Silk Road. At present the valley straddles three countries – Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan – which emerged as sovereign states after the collapse of the Soviet Union. This report takes the link between environment and security as the starting point for its consideration of the Ferghana valley. The report is the result of an in-depth assessment of major issues and areas of concern (environment-security hotspots) in the Ferghana valley carried out by the Envi- ronment and Security initiative (ENVSEC) in 2004-5. The assessment aims to identify needs and pave the way for further work resolving specific problems. It also seeks to draw the attention of regional and international audiences to identified problems. It also aims to develop cooperation and actions to address the problems facing this complex, dynamic part of Central Asia. The report draws on several different sources, in particular: academic research, reports by international and local organizations working in Central Asia on relevant issues, articles published in different media; •
information held by ENVSEC agencies and partners, not least the UNDP Preventive Development Programme (early warning component) and the Swisspeace early warning project (FAST) database; ENVSEC field work and consultations, including the UNEP-UNDP-OSCE mission to capitals in August-Sep- tember 2004, field work by UNEP, OSCE, NATO, the Ital- ian Ministry of the Environment and local counterparts in November-December 2004, and final consultations in Osh in December 2004 involving representatives of Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan; feedback received from the various countries on the background report prepared by ENVSEC in November 2004 and on the elements of the ENVSEC Ferghana valley work programme presented in Osh. After presenting the Environment and Security initiative, we will introduce the theoretical background used for ex- amining the links between security and environment. The following chapter is an analysis of the overall political and economical framework in Central Asia, pointing out the main trends affecting the security situation in the Ferghana valley. The next chapter describes the regional situation and discusses various clusters of issues that make up the environment and security dimension of the Ferghana valley. The final chapter contains an attempt at a more long-term outlook and an introduction to the work programme that the ENVSEC initiative will be implementing in the area in 2005-7. • • •
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