Environment and Security

Environment and Security / 3

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Preface Introduction

Environment and security in the Ferghana valley About the Environment and Security initiative Understanding links between environment and security Regional context Political and security factors Economic factors Ferghana / Osh / Khujand: Issues and problem spots Population of the Ferghana valley Natural resources: land and biodiversity A vital natural resource: water Industrial activities and hazardous waste Cross-cutting issues Conclusions and outlook The Ferghana valley environment and prospects for conflict The road ahead for ENVSEC

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This report was prepared on behalf of UNEP, UNDP, OSCE and NATO by: Luigi De Martino (Graduate Institute for Development Studies, University of Geneva) Annica Carlsson, Gianluca Rampolla (OSCE) Inkar Kadyrzhanova, Peter Svedberg (UNDP) Nickolai Denisov, Viktor Novikov, Philippe Rekacewicz, Otto Simonett, Janet Fernandez Skaalvik (UNEP/GRID-Arendal) Dominique del Pietro, Diana Rizzolio (UNEP/GRID-Europe) Marika Palosaari (UNEP Regional Office for Europe) with input and advice from: Luca Pupulin (Agency for Technical Cooperation and Development, Dushanbe) Nurlan Djenchuraev (Asian Development Bank, Bishkek) Makhmadsharif Khakdodov (Executive Office of the Presidential Administration of Tajikistan, Dushanbe) Omor Rustembekov, Tatiana Volkova (Ministry of Ecology and Emergencies of Kyrgyzstan, Bishkek) Michael Glantz (National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder) Timur Tillyaev (State Committee for Nature Protection of the Republic of Uzbekistan, Tashkent) Andriy Demydenko (United Nations Economic Commission for Europe, Geneva) Financial support for the assessment and publication of this report was provided by: Canadian International Development Agency Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs Italian Ministry of the Environment and Territory 45 48 53 Environment and Security Transforming risks into cooperation Notes References and sources List of abbreviations

Central Asia Ferghana / Osh / Khujand area

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