Ecosystem-Based Integrated Ocean Management: A Framework for Sustainable Ocean Economy Development

3.3.4. Integrated coastal zone management

3) Integration of stakeholders through partic- ipatory processes 4) Transboundary integration across admin- istrative and biophysical boundaries 5) Integration of system dynamics (temporal ecological, economic and/or socio-ecolog- ical) into models used in EB-IOM research or to support planning and decision-making. Figure 5 shows governance silos, represented by different administrative bodies with separate sec- toral responsibilities at different scales. Govern- ance integration means creating mechanisms to facilitate the cooperation between these bodies within each administrative tier (horizontal) and across administrative tiers (vertical). This could mean many different things in practice, including: • the development of new legislation (or reforms of existing legislation) to clarify remits and mandates of the different bod- ies and how they operate in relation to one another, especially in areas where they may overlap or impact one another • the creation of new permanent governance organizations (and underpinning legislation, as required) with a mandate to facilitate cooperation across existing bodies, or to take over multiple portfolios in relation to marine activities • subsidiarity or decentralization (as anchored in the Malawi Principles, box 3) in support of vertical integration • the creation of less formal governance structures and processes, either permanent or temporary (for the duration of a specific project or initiative), such as joint memoran- dums of understanding for sharing informa- tion relating to planning and development processes, data-sharing agreements for technical and scientific data, joint working groups for planning, decision-making or the long-term monitoring and management of particular issues These integration mechanisms can complement rather than replace single-sector silos (for an exam- ple, see NEAFC & OSPAR 2015). The benefits of integration do not infinitely outweigh the efficiency benefits of specialization and sector-specific bod- ies are often best placed to manage specialized processes that have little or no cross-sectoral impacts. Furthermore, managing the institutional and organizational changes required to build func- tioning integration mechanisms is in itself a signif- icant task. There are instances where wider gov- ernment or legal reforms provide opportunities for fundamental restructuring of mandates and remits, 3.4.2. Governance integration

The idea of ICZM became established in the 1990s, when the ecosystem approach was also gaining significant traction (Clark 1992, Pernetta & Elder 1993, Post & Lundin 1996). In essence, ICZM applies EBM to human activities along coastlines, addressing impacts across the land-sea interface. EB-IOM, on the other hand, applies EBM to activi- ties at sea. Simply put, ICZM is dry, EB-IOM is wet, but conceptually they are equivalent to (and exten- sions of) each other. While ICZM technically falls beyond the scope of ocean management (as defined in this report), the ecosystem approach includes safeguarding the ocean from impacts of human activities that take place beyond it. Thus, EB-IOM needs to be comple- mented and supported not only by ICZM, but also by integrated watershed management, waste reduc- tion and management in the terrestrial economy, and, of course, the control of global greenhouse gas emissions. Ocean managers may not be in a position to do all this, but they should do whatever is in their power to identify downstream impacts of human activities on the ocean and to address these at source (or to prompt others to do so). 3.4. A closer look at integration 3.4.1. The five categories of integration in Ecosys - tem-Based Integrated Ocean Management To achieve the vision of the blue doughnut (section 2.4), multiple environmental, social and economic objectives need to be integrated strategically. Man- agement measures must be designed that simulta- neously address cumulative ecosystem-scale envi- ronmental impacts (safeguarding the ecological ceiling), minimize user-user conflicts and pursue human wellbeing (building the social foundation). Although the importance of strategic integration and ‘holistic approaches‘ is often stressed, authors sometimes fail to define exactly what this means in practice (Kelly et al. 2019), although frameworks for analysing different forms of integration are being developed for ocean management (Saunders et al. 2019). For EB-IOM, strategic integration across sectors and objectives can be translated into five categories of integration that practitioners should embed in any new EB-IOM process or initiative (Figure 5): 1) Integration of governance institutions, organizations and processes, both vertical (through tiers of administration, from local to international), and horizontal (for exam- ple, across ministries) 2) Integration of knowledge through multi- or transdisciplinarity


Made with FlippingBook - Online catalogs