Ecosystem-Based Integrated Ocean Management: A Framework for Sustainable Ocean Economy Development

Executive summary9
1. Introduction10
1.1. About this report10
1.2. Why is a better approach to ocean management needed?10
1.2.1. The state of the global ocean environment10
1.2.2. Shortcomings in the status quo of ocean management12
2. Where to? A vision for a sustainable ocean economy14
2.1. About this section14
2.2. The ocean economy14
2.3. The Sustainable Development Goals and a sustainable ocean economy14
2.4. From blue growth to the blue doughnut16
3. What is Ecosystem-Based Integrated Ocean Management?20
3.1. About this section20
3.2. The ecosystem approach and ecosystem-based management20
3.3. Related ocean management concepts22
3.3.1. Ecologically or Biologically Significant Marine Areas (EBSAs)22
3.3.2. Marine protected area networks22
3.3.3. Marine spatial planning23
3.3.4. Integrated coastal zone management24
3.4. A closer look at integration24
3.4.1. The five categories of integration in Ecosystem-Based Integrated Ocean Management24
3.4.2. Governance integration24
3.4.3. Stakeholder integration26
3.4.4. Knowledge integration29
3.4.5. Transboundary integration30
3.4.6. Integration of system dynamics30
4. How is Ecosystem-Based Integrated Ocean Management implemented?32
4.1. About this section32
4.2. The adaptive management cycle32
4.2.1. Overview32
4.2.2. Pre-planning and cross-cutting elements32
4.2.3. Assessment of the status quo34
4.2.4. Management plan development35
4.2.5. Implementation and enforcement35
4.2.6. Monitoring and evaluation35
4.2.7. Enabling conditions35
4.2.8. How to use adaptive management frameworks36
4.3. Tools36
4.3.2. Types of tools for Ecosystem-Based Integrated Ocean Management36
4.3.2. Decision support tools37
4.3.3. Tools for analysing and modelling conflicts and interactions38
4.3.4. Tools for governance analysis39
4.3.5. Ecosystem services valuation40
5. Ecosystem-Based Integrated Ocean Management in practice42
5.1. Addressing challenges42
5.2. Successes42
5.2.1. Case studies42
5.2.2. Belize Integrated Coastal Zone Management Plan, Belize43
5.2.3. Barents Sea Integrated Ocean Management Plan, Norway43
5.2.4. Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Zoning Plan, Australia44
5.2.5. Gulf of Maine Council, Canada and USA45
5.2.6. Management of the Benguela Current Marine Ecoregion, Angola, Namibia, and South Africa46
6. Conclusion48

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