Caspian Sea 2011


2. Methodology The report is based on the Driving Forces-Pres- sures-State-Impacts-Responses (DPSIR) meth- odology, increasingly used to address integrated management issues in the marine environment (Turner et al.1998; Luiten 1999; Elliott 2002; Walmsley 2002). DPSIR is a framework, which shows the relationships between human activ- ity and the state and trends of the environment and human well-being. UNEP’s integrated envi- ronmental assessment process (in particular the

Global Environment Outlook process) is based on this methodology. It has a number of advantages, including simple, intuitive analysis of human-en- vironment interlinkages and the multi-stakehold- er approach, bringing together social and natural sciences, as well as policy and law. Driving Forces (e.g. demographic changes, economic and societal processes) lead to more specific Pressures on the environment (e.g. land

Driving Forces

Health Impacts

Human Development Population Growth

The effects to human health resulting from exposure to the environmental agents

Economic Development Science & Technology Culture, social, political & institutional processes

Exposure Interaction between humans and modified environment which may result in increased risk of disease

Vulnerability Sensitivity

Adaptive Capacity

Pressures Human interventions in the environment Land Use Resorce extraction Emissions Modification and movement of or- ganisms Natural processes Solar radiation Natural disasters



Environmental Impacts


Natural Capital Land

Resulting changes in environment Environmental stress Strain on ecological services Non ecosystem services Degradation

Full range of human actions to ad- dress specific issues Restoration Science and technology Policy, law and Institutions

Air Atmosphere Water Biodiversity

Climate change

Source: UNEP, Global Environment Outlook: environment for development (GEO-4), 2007.

Driving forces of environmental change (e.g. demography, industrial production) Pressures on the environment (e.g. discharges of waste water) State of the environment (e.g. climate change, water) Impacts on population, economy, ecosystems (e.g. water unsuitable for drinking) Response of the society (e.g. watershed protection)


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