Caspian Sea 2011
itoring Administration (CCEMA) is responsible for monitoring the environmental status of the Caspian marine environment and has its own fleet, regional divisions and ground laborato- ries. In order to improve the monitoring of the transboundary Kura and Araz rivers, two labo- ratories under the National Monitoring Depart- ment of MENR have been recently set up. have recently been set up and supplied with the nec- essary equipment. A new structural unit under the State Oil Com- pany of the Republic of Azerbaijan has been established to manage and coordinate the clean-up of oil-contaminated areas. A system monitoring pollution control of the environment has also been established (CEP 2007b). In 2008, by order of the Minister of Ecology and Natural Resources, the Centre for Implementing Measures Against Pollution of the Caspian Sea from Land-based Sources was established under the Department of Environmental Monitoring (Questionnaire AZ 2010). The aim was to ensure coordinated exploitation of modular wastewater treatment stations. In 2008, a Centre for Moni- toring and Ensuring Ecological Standard Com- pliance of Potable Water from the Kura and Araz rivers was established. The aim of the centre was to monitor the quality standards of potable wa- ter, in line with environmental standards (Ques- tionnaire AZ 2010). Iran: The Department of the Environment (DoE) is responsible for the management of environmental issues in the country. In 2008, there was a restructuring and reinforcement of the DoE’s Marine Environment Division at both the head office in Tehran and in the three Caspian Coastal Provinces’ Offices. The aim of the restructuring was to boost monitor- ing and the enforcement of rules and regula- tions regarding the protection of the Caspian marine environment (Questionnaire IR 2010). No institutional changes have been made in re- gard to air pollution or air quality.
The initial National Caspian Action Plan (NCAP, 2002) included measures “to develop an environ- mental assessment programme” under the head- ing of “Reduction of Contaminants Loads from Land-based Sources of Pollution”. With the sup- port of UNDP, the Department of Environment established a project—”Sustainable Develop- ment Strategy and Strategic Environmental As- sessment (SEA): enabling activities and capacity building”. The project includes capacity building and training; needs assessment in energy, trans- port and water sectors; creating a SEA national regulatory framework; facilitating knowledge sharing for stakeholders, and creating and ena- bling the right conditions for the achievement of Millenium Development Goals (MDGs) (http:// www.undp.org/fssd/priorityareas/sea.html). The management of fishery resources and aq- uaculture are the responsibility of the Iranian Fisheries Organization (Shilat). The organization is responsible for data on fishing stocks and for issuing licenses. It supervises fishing and fish processing. Shilat has five main offices and 50 fishing stations (WB 2009). The questionnaire reveals poor governance and imperfect manage- ment concerning exploitation of marine biore- sources. It also reports poor enforcement capa- bilities at the lower level. More coordination, as established within the sector of domestic fishery in Iranian rivers, and including the establish- ment of proper regulatory frameworks, is also needed (Questionnaire IR 2010). No changes were reported on biodiversity protection. According to the National Strategic Conven- tion Action Plan (NSCAP, 2007), a lack of inte- grated land and sea use planning and manage- ment, together with unsustainable development planning including the construction of roads, constitutes major factors contributing to the unsustainable development of the coastal zone. In 2007, the National Coordination Committee for the implementation of the Integrated Coastal Zone Management Plan of the Caspian Sea (arti- cle 63 of the 4th Five-year National Development Plan) was established. The Ministry of Housing
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