Caspian Sea 2011


Service 2009). A reduction in agricultural land use was also evident in the Atyrau oblast of Kazakh- stan, where the wheat production area decreased from 1,170 ha to 520 ha in 2005-09 (The Agency of Statistics of the Republic of Kazakhstan, Depart- ment of Statistics of Atyrau region 2010). Fisheries Reports indicate that the privatization of fishery production and processing plants in Azerbaijan in 2001 resulted in an increase in unemployment and illegal fishing in coastal areas such as Hachmaz, Siazan, Divechi, Lenkoran and Astara (Mamedli 2009). The latest official statistics show that 4,100 were employed in the fishery sector in 2009. Other sources suggest the number of employed in the sec- tor could be around 4,500 (Mamedli 2009). In total, it is estimated that the number of people employed in the fishery sector is between 4,100 and 4,500. 7 Employment data relating to fisheries in the coastal areas of Iran is available only up to 2004. This data shows a reduction in employment of about 2.5 per cent - from 14,558 to 14,213 over the period 2000 to 2004. The number of officially regis- tered vessels on the Caspian Sea coast of Iran has reduced from 1,799 in 1993 (878 in 2000) to 825 in 2003, or by 54% (Shilat). In the fishery sector of Kazakhstan, the offical employment figures show a reduction in numbers of those employed β€” from 4,989 to 3,667, or 27 per cent, in two coastal regions in the period 2006 to 2009 (The Agency of Statistics of the Republic of Kazakhstan, Department of Statistics of Atyrau re- gion). According to experts, there are 100 boats or 300 fishermen (3 per boat) operating in the coastal watershed illegally (Kim Yu). In Kazakhstan, during the period 2005-09, the average annual investment in the fishery sector of Atyrau oblast was 0.006 per cent of the total investment in the region.

Employment levels in the Caspian Sea fishery sector of the Russian Federation shrunk by 22% during the period 2005-07 β€” from 8,145 to 6,313 (Russian Federation Federal State Statistics Ser- vice 2009). The largest decrease was in Astrakhan and Kalmykia (-24% and -28%), while in Dagestan an almost twofold increase in fish catch employ- ment took place during the same period. In Rus- sia, the sharpest decline in the fishery sector was noted in Astrakhan oblast. Official oblast statistics show that the volume of fish catches has shrunk by 3.8 times, falling from 175,000 tonnes to 45,500 tonnes 8 . Investments in the fishery sector fell 2.5 times during 2007-08, from 193,828 million rubles to 100,125 million rubles. Official statistics also indicate that the profitability of investments in the fishery sector was -20.4% in fish catching but +15.2% in fish processing. This indicates that the major share of investments in the fishery sector of Astrakhan oblast went into processing rather than into fishing and hatchery activities. The reduction of the fishing fleet in Turkmeni- stan has played a major role in a decrease in sector employment. From 2000 to 2008, the fleet was re- duced by 29 per cent, mostly involving large boats, with crew levels reduced by at least 42 per cent. Infrastructure Sea level rise in the Caspian Sea region has considerable impact on infrastructure. The sea level in the Caspian Sea has been fluctuating for many years - between -26 and -27 metres. Over the past 2,000 years, the range in water level fluc- tuation has been 7 m, with the lowest sea level observed in the 6th–7th centuries. Between 1880 and 1977, the level of the Caspian Sea dropped four metres β€” from -25 metres to -29 metres be- low mean sea level. During this time, local peo- ple became accustomed to the gradual drop in water levels and carried out various shoreline ac- tivities. The sudden reversal of trends post 1977, with a rise in the water level of about two me-

7 Official sources state the number of the people employed in fisheries was 4.1 thousand in 2009. Other reports (Saria Tariel Mamedli 2009) suggest that around 980 boats with an average of 4 people in each privately operate in the whole Azerbaijan coast of the Caspian, which makes in total 4,520 (3920+600 officially employed)

8 On the activities of fishery enterprises of Astrakhan oblast, see Territorial body of Federal Service of State Statistics on Astrakhan oblast, Astrakhan 2009


Made with FlippingBook - Online catalogs