Caspian Sea 2011
erators of air polluting companies are required to provide. The GHG inventory covering years 1990 to 2003 was conducted with the support of UNDP and GEF. .Azerbaijan submitted its Second Na- tional Communication (SNC) in 2010. It states, that Azerbaijan’s GHG emissions have been de- clining from 1990 till 2000, mainly due to prevail- ing economic conditions up until the beginning of the millennium. However, already in 2005 the level of GHG net emissions constituted 70.6% of the 1990 base year level. According to Azerbaijani experts, emissions will reach the level of the base- line year in 2007-2008 (SNC). Iran: The Initial National Communication to the Conference of the Parties of the UNFCCC was made available in 2003. At a national level, the total CO 2 emission from different sectors in 1994 was about 342,062 Gg, where the energy sector contributed about 84% of total emissions, while the industrial sector and forestry contributed about 7% and 9% respectively. The total nation- wide CO 2 GHG equivalent was estimated to be approximately 417,012 Gg in 1994. Within this calculation, the energy sector contributed the greatest volume at 77% and the waste sector the lowest at 2%. Kazakhstan: The Second National Communica- tion to the UNFCCC was made available in 2009. Kazakhstan’s total GHG emissions amounted to 243 million tonnes of CO 2 equivalent in 2005. The energy sector contributed the biggest share of anthropogenic greenhouse gases - around 81% of the total (UNFCCC 2009). Among GHGs, CO 2 accounts for, by far, the largest emissions share, followed by methane and nitrous oxide. Between 2000 and 2005, when Kazakhstan’s economy began to recover from the downturn of previous years, CO 2 emissions from the energy sector increased by 36%: however, this was still 30% below 1992 levels. Given the high rate of economic growth and ac- celerated development in fuel and energy, as well as mining sectors, it is projected that average an- nual GHG emissions will grow, possibly reaching the 1990 level (around 300 million tonnes of CO 2 equivalent) by the end of the first Kyoto period in
2012, increasing further to between 340 to 390 mil- lion tonnes by 2015 (UNDP 2007/2008).
Most of Kazakhstan’s atmospheric emissions come from oil- and gas- related industries in Atyrau and Mangystau - the Caspian oblasts of Kazakhstan. Over 800 million m 3 of associated gas is flared annually (UNECE 2008). Some measures to improve the situation have been implemented (UNECE 2008) with major oil companies undertak- ing environmental protection activities relating to both present and past pollution. Most of the major companies, including KazMunaiGaz, Tengizchev- roil (TCO) and Agip KCO, have received ISO 14001 certification. Gas flaring during oil production has been banned. However, according to the latest sur- vey, gas flaring is still happening and tackling it is an environmental priority (Questionnaire KZ 2010). In Atyrau oblast, the main air polluter through routine gas flaring is the Tengizchevroil Company (TCO) (Questionnaire KZ 2010). Russian Federation: Although the Fourth Na- tional Communication to the UNFCCC is a cen- trally-based in-depth review, information is pro- vided only at the national level without including regional levels. It is therefore difficult to apply the information given specifically to the Caspian Sea region. According to the latest Transbound- ary Diagnostic Analyses, the main atmospheric emissions are the result of natural gas extraction and transportation, together with the production and distribution of power and water. Astrakhang- asprom accounted for 84.6% of the total volume of atmospheric pollutant emissions in the Astra- khan oblast in 2005 (CEP 2007a). Turkmenistan: The Second National Commu- nication to the Conference of the Parties of the UNFCCC is still not available. The First National Communication reported that emissions from the oil and gas sector accounted for 95% of the total volume of harmful substances emitted in the coun- try. (These include hydrocarbons, sulfur dioxide, carbon dioxide, oxides of nitrogen and solid sub- stances). In 2001, GHG emissions fell by 46% com- pared to 1999, due to the utilization of casinghead
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