Results These plans were developed to provide a foun¬dation for the co-existence of all the indus¬tries within the planning area, as well as a decision-making framework based on a broad knowledge of the environmental and economic consequences of current and future activities in the management plan areas. The management of these plans are implemented by area (e.g. protected areas, framework for petroleum activity, mandatory lanes for shipping etc.) and provide guidelines for specific activities (e.g. time limits, quotas, equipment restrictions etc.). The plans and regulations are regularly revised as new and improved knowledge becomes available, or when physical changes to the environment necessitate change. Enabling Conditions A key challenge throughout the plan’s development was to achieve truly integrated cooperation across sectors and between the different ministries, directorates and institutions involved. Success also depended on having input from interested user groups regarding how specific sectors were to be managed, or how assess¬ments of impacts in that sector were going to be made in relation to the wellbeing of the ecosystem. This was a very difficult process that required a considerable
amount of time, but in the end successful cooperation was achieved.
The Norwegian Marine Management plans are sanctioned at the highest possible political level – presented as white papers to the parliament. This ensures robust political backing for the objectives and enforcement of measures within the plans. This also improves stability and provides assurances for stakeholders in the petroleum, shipping and fishery industries. These plans were developed through a broad, multi-faceted process involving a number of government institutions. Under the overarching objective – ‘to allow for sustainable use while ensuring continued ecosystem health’ – each plan was refined to take into account the specific ecosystems and activities occurring within their boundaries. Currently, work relating to the plans is organized by an inter-ministerial Steering Committee chaired by the Ministry of Climate and Environment. Other members include the Ministry of Trade, Industry and Fisheries, the Ministry of Petroleum and Energy, the Ministry of Local Government and Modernization, the Ministry of ForeignAffairs, theMinistry of Finance, the Ministry of Transport and Communications, the Ministry Justice and Public Security, and the Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs.