ecosystems, as well as highlighting the value of blue-carbon. The Indian Ocean Commission (comprised of five African Island States) announced a series of concrete initiatives to combat climate change, illegal fishing, and to include ecological values on the balance sheet. By addressing poverty as among the most urgent of challenges, these initiatives are integrating new explorations of value to create and support more ‘sustainable seas’. Using six case studies, this report strives to highlight successes in the implementation of the Blue Economy, at four different levels: i) regional Blue Economy plans, ii) national Blue Economy plans, iii) integrated governance and iv) community-level initiatives. Each case study was tasked with identifying the potential socioeconomic and other (ecological, equity, efficiency) benefits of the particular approach taken as they relate to the sustainable
management of marine and coastal resources. These six case studies were chosen to reflect the diversity of both scale and of practice. It is important to note that these examples are not intended as a comprehensive summary, but in fact, only provide a small sample of the numerous initiatives that are currently emerging in the field. The continuing evolution of the Blue Economy, and the notable experience that has been generated, provide a valuable opportunity for reflection. It is hoped that through these case studies, countries, communities and practioners alike may gain a deeper understanding of the enabling conditions, the catalysts which have driven change, the major challenges that remain and the potential directions for future innovation to come. Inspiration, diversification, innovation, and vibrant inclusive participation each are key to a thriving Blue Economy.